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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2017, Article ID 6790504, 12 pages
Research Article

Path-Loss Channel Models for Receiver Spatial Diversity Systems at 2.4 GHz

1Department of Electrical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2KACST-TIC in RF and Photonics for the e-Society (RFTONICS), Department of Electrical Engineering, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3National Center for Electronics and Photonics Technology, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Abdulmalik Alwarafy; as.ude.usk.tneduts@319601734

Received 27 January 2017; Revised 21 March 2017; Accepted 23 March 2017; Published 13 April 2017

Academic Editor: Ikmo Park

Copyright © 2017 Abdulmalik Alwarafy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This article proposes receiver spatial diversity propagation path-loss channel models based on real-field measurement campaigns that were conducted in a line-of-site (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) indoor laboratory environment at 2.4 GHz. We apply equal gain power combining (EGC), coherent and noncoherent techniques, on the received signal powers. Our empirical data is used to propose spatial diversity propagation path-loss channel models using the log-distance and the floating intercept path-loss models. The proposed models indicate logarithmic-like reduction in the path-loss values as the number of diversity antennas increases. In the proposed spatial diversity empirical path-loss models, the number of diversity antenna elements is directly accounted for, and it is shown that they can accurately estimate the path-loss for any generalized number of receiving antenna elements for a given measurement setup. In particular, the floating intercept-based diversity path-loss model is vital to the 3GPP and WINNER II standards since they are widely utilized in multi-antenna-based communication systems.