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International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2018, Article ID 6841285, 14 pages
Research Article

Adaptive Gain Control Method of a Phase-Locked Loop for GNSS Carrier Signal Tracking

College of Automation, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jicheng Ding; moc.361@ueh.noraa

Received 7 October 2017; Accepted 11 December 2017; Published 4 March 2018

Academic Editor: N. Nasimuddin

Copyright © 2018 Zhibin Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The global navigation satellite system (GNSS) has been widely used in both military and civil fields. This study focuses on enhancing the carrier tracking ability of the phase-locked loop (PLL) in GNSS receivers for high-dynamic application. The PLL is a very popular and practical approach for tracking the GNSS carrier signal which propagates in the form of electromagnetic wave. However, a PLL with constant coefficient would be suboptimal. Adaptive loop noise bandwidth techniques proposed by previous researches can improve PLL tracking behavior to some extent. This paper presents a novel PLL with an adaptive loop gain control filter (AGCF-PLL) that can provide an alternative. The mathematical model based on second- and third-order PLL was derived. The error characteristics of the AGCF-PLL were also derived and analyzed under different signal conditions, which mainly refers to the different combinations of carrier phase dynamic and signal strength. Based on error characteristic curves, the optimal loop gain control method has been achieved to minimize tracking error. Finally, the completely adaptive loop gain control algorithm was designed. Comparable test results and analysis using the new method, conventional PLL, FLL-assisted PLL, and FAB-LL demonstrate that the AGCF-PLL has stronger adaptability to high target movement dynamic.