Relative Perfusion Differences between Parathyroid Adenomas and the Thyroid on Multiphase 4DCTRead the full article
International Journal of Biomedical Imaging aims to promote research and development of biomedical imaging by publishing high-quality research articles and reviews in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field.
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MRI Reconstruction with Separate Magnitude and Phase Priors Based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform
The methods of compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI) can be divided into two categories roughly based on the number of target variables. One group devotes to estimating the complex-valued MRI image. And the other calculates the magnitude and phase parts of the complex-valued MRI image, respectively, by enforcing separate penalties on them. We propose a new CS-based method based on dual-tree complex wavelet (DT CWT) sparsity, which is under the frame of the second class of CS-MRI. Owing to the separate regularization frame, this method reduces the impact of the phase jumps (that means the jumps or discontinuities of phase values) on magnitude reconstruction. Moreover, by virtue of the excellent features of DT CWT, such as nonoscillating envelope of coefficients and multidirectional selectivity, the proposed method is capable of capturing more details in the magnitude and phase images. The experimental results show that the proposed method recovers the image contour and edges information well and can eliminate the artifacts in magnitude results caused by phase jumps.
A Concise Review on the Utilization of Abbreviated Protocol Breast MRI over Full Diagnostic Protocol in Breast Cancer Detection
Breast MRI possesses high sensitivity for detecting breast cancer among the current clinical modalities and is an indispensable imaging practice. Breast MRI comprises diffusion-weighted imaging, ultrafast, and T2 weighted and T1 weighted CE (contrast-enhanced) imaging that may be utilized for improving the characterization of the lesions. This multimodal evaluation of breast lesions enables outstanding discrimination between the malignant and benign and malignant lesions. The expanding indications of breast MRI confirm the far superiority of MRI in preoperative staging, especially in the estimation of tumour size and identifying tumour foci in the contralateral and ipsilateral breast. Recent studies depicted that experts can meritoriously utilize this tool for improving breast cancer surgery despite their existence of no significant long term outcomes. For managing the, directly and indirectly, associated screening cost, abbreviated protocols are found to be more beneficial. Further, in some of the patients who were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, breast MRI is utilized for documenting response. It is therefore essential to realise that oncological screening must be easily available, cost-effective, and time-consuming. Earlier detection of this short sequence protocol leads to prior and early breast cancer disease in high risky female populations like women with dense breasts, prehistoric evidence, etc. This proper utilization of AP reduces unnecessary mastectomies. Hence, this review focused on the explorative information for strongly suggesting the benefits of AP breast MRI compared to full diagnostic protocol MRI.
Content-Based Image Retrieval Using Colour, Gray, Advanced Texture, Shape Features, and Random Forest Classifier with Optimized Particle Swarm Optimization
In this paper, a new approach for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) has been addressed by extracting colour, gray, advanced texture, and shape features for input query images. Contour-based shape feature extraction methods and image moment extraction techniques are used to extract the shape features and shape invariant features. The informative features are selected from extracted features and combined colour, gray, texture, and shape features by using PSO. The target image has been retrieved for the given query image by training the random forest classifier. The proposed colour, gray, advanced texture, shape feature, and random forest classifier with optimized PSO (CGATSFRFOPSO) provide efficient retrieval of images in a large-scale database. The main objective of this research work is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the CBIR system by extracting the features like colour, gray, texture, and shape from database images and query images. These extracted features are processed in various levels like removing redundancy by optimal feature selection and fusion by optimal weighted linear combination. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is used for selecting the informative features from gray and colour and texture features. The matching accuracy and the speed of image retrieval are improved by an ensemble of machine learning algorithms for the similarity search.
Modified Gray-Level Haralick Texture Features for Early Detection of Diabetes Mellitus and High Cholesterol with Iris Image
Iris has specific advantages, which can record all organ conditions, body construction, and psychological disorders. Traces related to the intensity or deviation of organs caused by the disease are recorded systematically and patterned on the iris and its surroundings. The pattern that appears on the iris can be recognized by using image processing techniques. Based on the pattern in the iris image, this paper aims to provide an alternative noninvasive method for the early detection of DM and HC. In this paper, we perform detection based on iris images for two diseases, DM and HC simultaneously, by developing the invariant Haralick feature on quantized images with 256, 128, 64, 32, and 16 gray levels. The feature extraction process does early detection based on iris images. Researchers and scientists have introduced many methods, one of which is the feature extraction of the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Early detection based on the iris is done using the volumetric GLCM development, namely, 3D-GLCM. Based on 3D-GLCM, which is formed at a distance of and in the direction of 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°, 225°, 270°, and 315°, it is used to calculate Haralick features and develop Haralick features which are invariant to the number of quantization gray levels. The test results show that the invariant feature with a gray level of 256 has the best identification performance. In dataset I, the accuracy value is 97.92, precision is 96.88, and recall is 95.83, while in dataset II, the accuracy value is 95.83, precision is 89.69, and recall is 91.67. The identification of DM and HC trained on invariant features showed higher accuracy than the original features.
Pedicle Morphometry of Subaxial Cervical Spine Using Computed Tomography Scans among Adult Ugandan Subpopulation
Background. Accurate placement of pedicle screws in the subaxial cervical spine requires precise understanding of vertebra anatomy. Little is known about the morphometric characteristics of the subaxial cervical pedicle in the Ugandan population. The objective of the study was to determine the morphometric dimensions of pedicles in the subaxial cervical spine among the adult Ugandan population. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study from March to November 2019 among adult Ugandans with a normal cervical CT scan at Nsambya hospital in Kampala. Eligible participants were consecutively recruited into the study. Data on baseline characteristics and pedicle dimensions from the CT scan finding was collected using a structured questionnaire. Data was analysed using Stata 13.0. Pedicle dimensions for the different levels of subaxial cervical vertebrae were summarised as means and standard deviations, the Mann–Whitney test was used to compare pedicle dimensions for the different vertebra levels among females and males on both right and left sides, and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results. A total of 700 subaxial cervical pedicles (C3-C7) from 49 males and 21 female participants were studied. Pedicle width diameter showed cephalocaudal gradual increment from C3 1.65(0.63) mm to 3.46(0.75) mm at C7. Pedicle height also showed an increase caudally with smallest diameter at C3 (1.98(0.76) mm) and largest at C5 in females (3.67(6.42) mm) and at C7 in males (3.83(0.76) mm). The pedicle height was wider than the pedicle width at all levels. The pedicle chord length gradually increased caudally in both sexes ranging from 29.08(1.35) mm at C3 to 32.53(3.19) mm at C7. The axial angles were oriented medially and showed no consistent trend ranging between 50° and 53°. The sagittal angles decreased as one moved from C3 to C7. The dimensions of females were significantly smaller than in males. Conclusion. Pedicle endosteal width was smaller than pedicle height dimensions at all levels. Pedicle cord length increased caudally. The pedicle dimensions, except angulations, were smaller in females than in males.
Water Cycle Bat Algorithm and Dictionary-Based Deformable Model for Lung Tumor Segmentation
Among the different types of cancers, lung cancer is one of the widespread diseases which causes the highest number of deaths every year. The early detection of lung cancer is very essential for increasing the survival rate in patients. Although computed tomography (CT) is the preferred choice for lungs imaging, sometimes CT images may produce less tumor visibility regions and unconstructive rates in tumor portions. Hence, the development of an efficient segmentation technique is necessary. In this paper, water cycle bat algorithm- (WCBA-) based deformable model approach is proposed for lung tumor segmentation. In the preprocessing stage, a median filter is used to remove the noise from the input image and to segment the lung lobe regions, and Bayesian fuzzy clustering is applied. In the proposed method, deformable model is modified by the dictionary-based algorithm to segment the lung tumor accurately. In the dictionary-based algorithm, the update equation is modified by the proposed WCBA and is designed by integrating water cycle algorithm (WCA) and bat algorithm (BA).