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International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2006 (2006), Article ID 47197, 12 pages

An Optimized Spline-Based Registration of a 3D CT to a Set of C-Arm Images

1Biomedical Imaging Group, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne VD CH-1015, Switzerland
2Institut de Minéralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condensés, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 75015, France
3Institute for Surgical Technology and Biomechanics, MEM Research Center for Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Bern, Bern CH-3014, Switzerland

Received 12 October 2005; Revised 23 January 2006; Accepted 3 February 2006

Academic Editor: Tiange Zhuang

Copyright © 2006 S. Jonić et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We have developed an algorithm for the rigid-body registration of a CT volume to a set of C-arm images. The algorithm uses a gradient-based iterative minimization of a least-squares measure of dissimilarity between the C-arm images and projections of the CT volume. To compute projections, we use a novel method for fast integration of the volume along rays. To improve robustness and speed, we take advantage of a coarse-to-fine processing of the volume/image pyramids. To compute the projections of the volume, the gradient of the dissimilarity measure, and the multiresolution data pyramids, we use a continuous image/volume model based on cubic B-splines, which ensures a high interpolation accuracy and a gradient of the dissimilarity measure that is well defined everywhere. We show the performance of our algorithm on a human spine phantom, where the true alignment is determined using a set of fiducial markers.