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International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2012, Article ID 872783, 17 pages
Research Article

Serial FEM/XFEM-Based Update of Preoperative Brain Images Using Intraoperative MRI

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
3Computational Radiology Laboratory, Department of Radiology Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utrecht Medical Center, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands

Received 30 June 2011; Revised 18 September 2011; Accepted 23 September 2011

Academic Editor: Shan Zhao

Copyright © 2012 Lara M. Vigneron et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Current neuronavigation systems cannot adapt to changing intraoperative conditions over time. To overcome this limitation, we present an experimental end-to-end system capable of updating 3D preoperative images in the presence of brain shift and successive resections. The heart of our system is a nonrigid registration technique using a biomechanical model, driven by the deformations of key surfaces tracked in successive intraoperative images. The biomechanical model is deformed using FEM or XFEM, depending on the type of deformation under consideration, namely, brain shift or resection. We describe the operation of our system on two patient cases, each comprising five intraoperative MR images, and we demonstrate that our approach significantly improves the alignment of nonrigidly registered images.