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International Journal of Biomedical Imaging
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 520540, 10 pages
Research Article

Respiratory Motion Compensation Using Diaphragm Tracking for Cone-Beam C-Arm CT: A Simulation and a Phantom Study

1Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
2Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS Center, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
3Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, 91301 Forchheim, Germany

Received 21 February 2013; Revised 13 May 2013; Accepted 15 May 2013

Academic Editor: Michael W. Vannier

Copyright © 2013 Marco Bögel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Long acquisition times lead to image artifacts in thoracic C-arm CT. Motion blur caused by respiratory motion leads to decreased image quality in many clinical applications. We introduce an image-based method to estimate and compensate respiratory motion in C-arm CT based on diaphragm motion. In order to estimate respiratory motion, we track the contour of the diaphragm in the projection image sequence. Using a motion corrected triangulation approach on the diaphragm vertex, we are able to estimate a motion signal. The estimated motion signal is used to compensate for respiratory motion in the target region, for example, heart or lungs. First, we evaluated our approach in a simulation study using XCAT. As ground truth data was available, a quantitative evaluation was performed. We observed an improvement of about 14% using the structural similarity index. In a real phantom study, using the artiCHEST phantom, we investigated the visibility of bronchial tubes in a porcine lung. Compared to an uncompensated scan, the visibility of bronchial structures is improved drastically. Preliminary results indicate that this kind of motion compensation can deliver a first step in reconstruction image quality improvement. Compared to ground truth data, image quality is still considerably reduced.