Comparative Evaluation of Bone Repair with Four Different Bone Substitutes in Critical Size DefectsRead the full article
International Journal of Biomaterials publishes research on the theory, design, engineering, fabrication, and implementation of materials and devices for therapeutic or diagnostic use in biological systems.
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Does Modification of Amalgomer with Propolis Alter Its Physicomechanical Properties? An In Vitro Study
Objective. To assess if incorporating ethanolic extract of propolis into ceramic-reinforced glass ionomer (Amalgomer CR) might have an influence on its physicomechanical properties. Materials and Methods. Three groups were assessed; group I: Amalgomer CR (control) and two experimental groups (II and III) of propolis added to the liquid of Amalgomer CR with 25 and 50 v/v %, respectively. Evaluation parameters were color stability, compressive strength, microhardness, and surface roughness. Representative specimens of each group were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the results, followed by a Tukey post hoc test (). Results. Nonsignificant color change for both groups of modified Amalgomer CR. Meanwhile, the two experimental groups exhibited a significant increase in both compressive strength and microhardness. Simultaneously, there was a significant difference in roughness values among groups with the lowest roughness values exhibited by the 50 v/v % propolis concentration. Conclusions. Modification of Amalgomer CR with 50 v/v % propolis may increase its mechanical properties without compromising its esthetic. Clinical Significance. Modification of Amalgomer CR by 50 v/v % propolis is supposed to be a hopeful restorative material with favorable characteristics.
Synthesis of Silica-Coated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles by Microemulsion Method: Characterization and Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity
Magnetite and silica-coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion method from hydrated ferric nitrate, ferrous sulfate precursors and ammonia a precipitating agent with the assistance of Tween-80 and SDS surfactants. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analyzer, and infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction pattern of Fe3O4 showed that particles were phase pure with a cubic inverse spinel structure and FT-infrared spectra confirmed the presence of Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral interstitial sites. The crystallite size determined from powder XRD data with Scherer’s equation was in the range of 7.3 ± 0.05 nm–10.83 ± 0.02 nm for uncoated Fe3O4 and 16 ± 0.14 nm for silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs. The SEM micrographs of the uncoated Fe3O4 oxide revealed the agglomeration of the magnetite (Fe3O4) particles. But the silica-coated Fe3O4 oxide exhibited homogeneous distribution of particles with relatively less agglomerate of the particles. The particle size of Fe3O4 NPs slightly increased with the temperature and precursor concentration. The antimicrobial activities of Fe3O4 and silica-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria. Both Fe3O4 and silica-coated Fe3O4 NPs demonstrated better antimicrobial activities.
Osteopromotion Capacity of Bovine Cortical Membranes in Critical Defects of Rat Calvaria: Histological and Immunohistochemical Analysis
Membranes that aid the guided bone regeneration (GBR) process have been the subject of studies of compatible biomaterials that contribute to this repair process. The present study compared different membranes used in critical-size defects of rat calvaria by assessing GBR as well as histological, histomorphometric, and immunohistochemical reactions. Forty-eight male albino Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups (n = 12 each), namely, C: membrane-free control group (only blood clot, negative control group); BG: porcine collagen membrane group (Bio-Gide®, positive control group); GD: bovine cortical membrane group (first experimental group); and GDF: thicker bovine cortical membrane group (second experimental group). Rats were euthanized at 30 and 60 days postoperatively. Quantitative data from the histometric analysis were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s posttest when . Histomorphometric results of the thicker bovine cortical membrane at 30 and 60 days were promising, showing improved new bone formation values (), and the CD group presented similar results in both analysis periods, being surpassed only by the GDF group (). The immunohistochemical results were associated with the histomorphometric data. A less-thick membrane also assisted in GBR. All membranes promoted GBR, especially the positive control and experimental groups.
Potentials of Biochars Derived from Bamboo Leaf Biomass as Energy Sources: Effect of Temperature and Time of Heating
Biochars from bamboo leaves as a potential energy resource were synthesized by annealing in the oxygen-free environment. Samples were characterized using proximate analysis, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Heating temperatures are 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C and for each temperature, the time was varied between 30, 60, and 90 minutes. The heating time for 30 minutes results in FC 30.777% and calorific value 15 MJ/Kg at temperature 250°C and decreased to 4.004% and 6 MJ/Kg at temperature 350°C, respectively. EDS shows the time of heating is an important parameter which shows the carbon and nitrogen contents were decreasing with the increase in the heating time, and silicon and oxygen contents were increasing with increase in the heating time. XRD shows broad (002) reflections between 20° and 30°, which indicated disordered carbon with small domains of coherent and parallel stacking of the graphene sheets, which is consistent with surface morphology of the SEM image. The experimental results indicated that heating at 300°C for 30 minutes is an effective and efficient parameter for fabrication of low-cost carbon from bamboo leaves which is a source of useful energy.
Indigo Carmine and 2,6-Dichlorophenolindophenol Removal Using Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide-Modified Palm Oil Fiber: Adsorption Isotherms and Mass Transfer Kinetics
In the present work, the usefulness of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide-modified palm oil fiber (CTAB-modified POF) for the removal of indigo carmine (IC) and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (2,6-DCPIP) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Raw, NaOH-treated, and CTAB-modified POF were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric-hyperdifferential scanning calorimetric (TG-HDSC) analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption studies of IC and 2,6-DCPIP were performed in batch mode using CTAB-modified POF. The results showed that equilibrium was attained after a contact time of 30 minutes for IC and 20 minutes for 2,6-DCPIP. The maximum capacity of adsorption was obtained at pH = 2. The capacity of adsorption considerably increased with modified biosorbents and with increasing initial concentration of dyes. The ionic strength favors the increasing adsorption capacity of IC and does not affect the adsorption capacity of 2,6-DCPIP. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing mass of the biosorbents. The nonlinear regression of adsorption isotherms showed that Freundlich (r2 0.953; = 4.398) and Temkin (r2 0.986; = 1.196) isotherms are most appropriate to describe the adsorption of IC and 2,6-DCPIP on CTAB-modified POF, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacities determined by the Langmuir isotherm were 275.426 and 230.423 μmol·g−1 for IC and 2,6-DCPIP, respectively. The linear regression of adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model (R2 0.998). The diffusion mechanism showed that external mass transfer is the main rate controlling step. Desorption of the two dyes is favorable in the alkaline medium.
Modulus of Elasticity of Two Ceramic Materials and Stress-Inducing Mechanical Deformation following Fabrication Techniques and Adhesive Cementation Procedures of a Dental Ceramic
Statement of Problem. Fabrication technique, precementation, and cementation operative procedures can induce significant modification of the stressing patterns throughout the thickness of some classes of dental ceramic materials. Objectives. To estimate, by means of the deflection test, residual stress in restorative dental ceramic following fabrication technique, precementation, and resin cement coating procedures and to relate it to the elastic property of the ceramic material tested. Materials and Methods. From IPS e.max® Press, lithium disilicate heat-pressed glass-ceramic (elastic modulus of 95 ± 5 GPa) disc-shaped specimens (n = 10) were made according to the manufacturer’s instructions. One surface of the specimens was polished to provide accurate baseline profilometric measurements (reference surface). Deflection measurements were performed after polishing and annealing alumina air-particle abrasion of the unpolished surface followed by resin cement coating of the alumina air-particle abraded surface. The specimens were reprofiled at 24, 48, and 168 hrs after coating. The Friedman test followed by Dunn’s multiple comparison test was employed to identify significant differences (). To compare the difference in mean of maximum mechanical deflection, after cement coating at 0 hr, between two different ceramic materials (IPS e.max Press and Vitadur Alpha (result from another study)), Student’s t-test for unpaired data was performed. Results. Baseline profilometric measurements identified a convex form on the polished surface of the ceramic discs with a mean of maximum mechanical deflection of 4.45 ± 0.87 μm. A significant reduction in convexity of the polished specimens was characterized after alumina air-particle abrasion of the unpolished surface. The mean deflection significantly increased after resin cement coating and did not change over the time investigated. Conclusions. The precementation treatment, namely, alumina air-particle abrasion and cementation procedure of IPS e.max® Press glass-ceramic disc-shaped specimens generates stress that induced mechanical deformation. However, a dental ceramic material with higher elastic modulus (stiffer) would minimize stress-inducing mechanical deformation.