Preclinical Testing of New Hydrogel Materials for Cartilage Repair: Overcoming Fixation Issues in a Large Animal ModelRead the full article
International Journal of Biomaterials publishes research on the theory, design, engineering, fabrication, and implementation of materials and devices for therapeutic or diagnostic use in biological systems.
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Improving Fibrin Hydrogels’ Mechanical Properties, through Addition of Silica or Chitosan-Silica Materials, for Potential Application as Wound Dressings
Fibrin is a protein-based hydrogel formed during blood coagulation. It can also be produced in vitro from human blood plasma, and it is capable of resisting high deformations. However, after each deformation process, it loses high amounts of water, which subsequently makes it mechanically unstable and, finally, difficult to manipulate. The objective of this work was to overcome the in vitro fibrin mechanical instability. The strategy consists of adding silica or chitosan-silica materials and comparing how the different materials electrokinetic-surface properties affect the achieved improvement. The siliceous materials electrostatic and steric stabilization mechanisms, together with plasma protein adsorption on their surfaces, were corroborated by DLS and ζ-potential measurements before fibrin gelling. These properties avoid phase separation, favoring homogeneous incorporation of the solid into the forming fibrin network. Young’s modulus of modified fibrin hydrogels was evaluated by AFM to quantitatively measure stiffness. It increased 2.5 times with the addition of 4 mg/mL silica. A similar improvement was achieved with only 0.7 mg/mL chitosan-silica, which highlighted the contribution of hydrophilic chitosan chains to fibrinogen crosslinking. Moreover, these chains avoided the fibroblast growth inhibition onto modified fibrin hydrogels 3D culture observed with silica. In conclusion, 0.7 mg/mL chitosan-silica improved the mechanical stability of fibrin hydrogels with low risks of cytotoxicity. This easy-to-manipulate modified fibrin hydrogel makes it suitable as a wound dressing biomaterial.
Development and Characterization of Stingless Bee Propolis Properties for the Development of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Loading Lipophilic Substances
Stingless bees are insects which are popularly bred by agriculturists in the eastern region of Thailand for the pollination of their orchards. The products from stingless bee breeding include bee honey and bee propolis. The objective of this experiment is to study the possibility of developing stingless bee propolis wax into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) by the comparison of five surfactants (Brij 721, Cremophor WO 7, Myrj 52, Poloxamer 188, and Tween 80). Each surfactant is used at three concentrations: 10%, 20%, and 30%. A master formula is selected according to the following: physical features, particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment. The results showed that Brij 721 and Myri 52 at 20% can be used in preparing SLN and have good preservation properties for vitamin E (size: 451.2 nm and 416.8 nm, zeta potential: - 24.0 and - 32.7; % EE: 92.32% and 92.00%, resp.). Therefore, they are further developed by adding the following drugs at low solubility: curcumin, ibuprofen, and astaxanthin. It is found that a formula using the surfactants Brij 721 and Myrj 52 at 20% have similar drug entrapment. The entrapment study involves curcumin 82%, ibuprofen 40%, and astaxanthin 67%. Moreover, the cytotoxicity test of blank solid lipid nanoparticle found no toxicty in fibroblast cell line (CRL-2522). Therefore, from this study, it is determined that stingless bee propolis wax has the potential to be developed to provide more efficient SLN in the future.
Turning the Cocopith Waste into Myceliated Biocomposite to Make an Insulator
Cocopith is the main waste of the coconut coir milling industry, which has not been handled properly until now. Burning cocopith as a response to land availability concerns for storing waste has an impact on pollution for the surrounding environment. Efforts to reduce, reuse, recycle, and remanufacture cocopith waste provide better economic value for waste. The method used in this research is one with quantitative and qualitative approaches. The AAS method is used to test the concentration of cocopith chemical elements, while lignin and cellulose levels were tested using data methods. The test results obtained that the highest chemical elements are sulfur and chlorine; the sulfur content in 1 kg of cocopith is 24,000 mg and chlorine content is 10,371 mg. Meanwhile, the other results showed that lignin levels in cocopith (22.7%) are higher than cellulose content (10.27%). The test results of cocopith characteristics from the methods mentioned above showed that the chemical content of sulfur and chlorine and lignin, more so than cellulose, causes cocopith to have the potential to insulate thermally. Based on this potential, cocopith is processed into mycelium-based biocomposite that serves as an insulator. Maximum stress and tensile stress of this biocomposite have been tested through flexural strength tests with the ASTM-D7264 method. The biocomposite feasibility of the material as an insulator was shown through a thermal conductivity test at temperatures of 13°C–40°C. This showed a thermal conductivity value of 0.0887241 0.002964 W/mK. This value is in the range of 0.01–1.00 W/mK, which is a recommended value for the thermal conductivity insulator.
Bovine Hydroxyapatite-Based Bone Scaffold with Gentamicin Accelerates Vascularization and Remodeling of Bone Defect
Osteomyelitis is an infectious disease which is also a major complication of bone defects. This study aims to determine the effect of bovine hydroxyapatite-gelatin-based bone implants with gentamicin as an antibiotic (BHA-GEL-GEN implant) on the regeneration of bone defects in vivo. The BHA-GEL-GEN and BHA-GEL implants were made by direct compression. In vivo study was carried out with Wistar rats. The rats were divided into three groups: negative control, BHA-GEL implant, and BHA-GEL-GEN implants. The defect model used was the burr hole defect model with diameter 2.2 mm and 2 mm deep. After 2, 7, 14, and 28 days, the rats were sacrificed. Bone integrity was carried out using X-ray radiography. Radiological examination was performed using haematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and immunohistochemical techniques with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and anti-alkaline phosphatase (ALP) antibodies. Based on the radiograph, the implanted group had accelerated bone growth in the defect area. Semiquantitative data from HE staining showed that the implanted group had accelerated migration of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes in the defect area. The immunoreactive score showed that the BHA-GEL-GEN group had higher VEGF expression compared to two other groups. The three groups did not provide a significant difference in ALP expression. In conclusion, the BHA-GEL-GEN implant causes accelerated bone defects repair by accelerating tissue vascularity and does not interfere with the bone remodeling process. Therefore, the BHA-GEL-GEN implant is potentially a biomedical material for osteomyelitis therapy.
Surface Analysis and Spectrophotometric Evaluation of Different Esthetic Restorative Materials Frequently Exposed to a Desensitizing Agent
Background. Patients with tooth sensitivity are frequently exposed to desensitizing agents on a regular basis. These agents might have an impact on the surface properties and color of existing oral restorations. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the color stability, surface microhardness, and surface roughness of resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGIC), amalgomer CR, nanohybrid, and bulk-fill resin composites restorative materials after frequent exposure to a desensitizing agent. Materials and Methods. One hundred and twenty specimens were prepared; 10 specimens for each restorative material were equally subdivided into control and desensitizing-agent-exposed groups in each test. Surface microhardness and surface roughness were evaluated using the Vickers microhardness tester and surface profilometer, respectively. The color change was measured by using a spectrophotometer using the CIE Lab formula. Surface topography was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The collected data were analyzed with Student’s t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey post hoc tests for pairwise comparison at a level of significance of 0.05. Result. The frequent use of a desensitizing agent significantly decreased surface hardness of RMGIC, amalgomer, and bulk-fill composite materials. However, nanohybrid composite exhibited a significant surface hardness increase. The surface roughness of RMGIC, amalgomer, and nanohybrid composite increased significantly. Meanwhile, the bulk-fill resin composite showed a nonsignificant decrease. Both RMGIC and amalgomer exhibited significantly higher values of color change in comparison to those of nanohybrid and bulk-fill composites. Conclusion. The bulk-fill composite seems to be more resistant to discoloration and surface topographical changes than other tested materials on frequent exposure to the desensitizing agent. However, this exposure may pose a negative impact on its surface hardness. Bulk-fill resin composite may be the most suitable esthetic restorative in patients who frequently use desensitizing agents.
Extract of Propolis on Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Cement: Effect on Mechanical and Antimicrobial Properties and Dentin Bonding Strength
This study assessed the effect of addition of aqueous extract of propolis in different concentrations on the mechanical and antimicrobial properties of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). In this in vitro study, powder of Fuji II LC RMGIC was mixed with 25% and 50% aqueous extracts of propolis. Samples (n = 15 for shear bond strength, n = 5 for flexural strength, and n = 20 for the antibacterial activity test) were fabricated using this mixture. The buccal and lingual surfaces of 23 premolars were ground to expose dentin. Tygon tubes were filled with cement, bonded to dentin, and subjected to bond or the flexural strength test in a universal testing machine. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and well-plate techniques against S. mutans. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. The three groups showed significant differences ( < 0.001). The 50% propolis group had the lowest flexural and shear bond strength. The control group had the highest flexural and shear bond strength. No growth inhibition zone was noted around any of the discs. It can be concluded that addition of propolis to RMGIC did not confer any antibacterial activity against S. mutans and decreased the flexural and shear bond strength of RMGIC.