Histopathological and Biochemical Comparative Study of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles and Copper Sulphate Toxicity in Male Albino Mice Reproductive SystemRead the full article
International Journal of Biomaterials publishes research on the theory, design, engineering, fabrication, and implementation of materials and devices for therapeutic or diagnostic use in biological systems.
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The Optimal Timing of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injection for Nerve Lesion Recovery: A Preliminary Study
Introduction. Without appropriate treatment, nerve injuries may result in permanent loss of function. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection is found to help in nerve regeneration. PRP is a concentrated platelet derived from autologous blood with the potential to release various growth factors (GF) to promote nerve regeneration. This study aims to know the best time for PRP injection to promote nerve regeneration. Methods. This is an experimental in vivo research using male New Zealand white rabbits in the randomized control group posttest only design. Samples were divided into 5 groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups). The control group without PRP injection and treated groups injected immediately after nerve injury, 3 days, 7 days, and 14 days afterward. Nerve regeneration was evaluated by the histology specimen sacrificed on day 21. Inflammation cells and endoneurium vacuoles were counted as mean percentage of five nerve fragments in each injured nerve sample specimen. Result. Inflammation cells and vacuole cells increased significantly when PRP was administered 3 days after injury (group 2) (respectively, 14 ± 6.7 and 56.6 ± 11.6) compared to all treatment groups () (control group, respectively, 6 ± 2.6 and 15.7 ± 9.5). On the other hand, significantly lower endoneurium vacuoles and inflammation cells were found on “the day 14” sample group (respectively, 5 ± 1.3 and 5.2 ± 1.6) compared to all other groups (). Conclusion. This study found that the best time for injecting PRP for nerve regeneration is 14 days after injury.
Evaluation of Biomechanical and Chemical Properties of Gamma-Irradiated Polycaprolactone Microfilaments for Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Applications
An appropriate and reliable sterilization technique is crucial for tissue engineering scaffolds. Skeletal muscle scaffolds are often fabricated using microfilaments of a wide variety of polymers. One method for sterilization is 25 kGy of gamma irradiation. In addition, sterilization through irradiation should administer a dose within a specific range. Radiation directly affects the chemical and mechanical properties of scaffolds. The accuracy and effects of irradiation are often not considered during sterilization procedures; however, these are important since they provide insight on whether the sterilization procedure is reliable and reproducible. This study focused on the chemical and mechanical characterization of 25 kGy gamma-irradiated scaffold. The accuracy and uncertainty of the irradiation procedure were also obtained. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses were performed to determine whether the crystallinity of the polymer changed after irradiation and whether gamma rays influenced its thermal properties. The tensile parameters of the microfilaments were analyzed by comparing irradiated and nonirradiated scaffolds to determine whether gamma radiation changed their elastic behavior. Dose distribution and uncertainty were recorded with several dosimeters. The results showed that the irradiation process slightly affected the mechanical parameters of the scaffold; however, it did not modify its crystallinity or thermal properties. The irradiation was uniform, since the measured uncertainty was low. The scaffold was pathogen-free after 7 days; this meant sterilization was achieved. These results indicated that gamma-sterilized scaffolds were a promising material for use as a skeletal muscle analog material for tissue-engineering applications because they can be sterilized with gamma rays without changing their chemical structure and mechanical properties. This study provided the dose distribution measurement and uncertainty calculations for the sterilization procedure.
Comparative Effect of Incorporation of ZrO2, TiO2, and SiO2 Nanoparticles on the Strength and Surface Properties of PMMA Denture Base Material: An In Vitro Study
Objective. This study aimed to investigate the effects of nanoparticles (zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and silicon dioxide (SiO2)) on the flexural strength, impact strength, hardness, and wear resistance of the acrylic resin denture base material. Materials and Methods. Acrylic resin specimens were fabricated in dimensions according to American Dental Association (ADA) specifications per test. Specimens were divided according to nanofiller into four groups; unmodified as control, ZrO2 (Z), TiO2, (T), and SiO2 (S) groups. Each one was subdivided into two subgroups according to nanoparticle concentrations; 3% and 7% (Z3, Z7, T3, T7, S3, and S7). A 3-point bending test, Charpy impact test, and Vickers hardness test were used for flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness measurements, respectively. Wear resistance was measured by the differences in surface roughness of tested specimens before and after the wear test. A scanning electron microscope was used to assess nanoparticle specifications and distributions and for fracture surfaces analysis. ANOVA, Bonferroni’s post hoc test, and the Kruskal–Wallis test were applied for data analysis (α = 0.05). Results. Regarding the flexural and impact strength, there was a statistically remarkable increase for all tested groups compared with the control group, except for the T7 and S7 groups ( value <0.001, effect size = 0.893) and ( value <0.001, effect size = 0.759), respectively. There was a statistically significant improvement in the hardness of all tested groups compared with the control group ( value <0.001, effect size = 0.67) except T3 and S3. Regarding wear, a statistically significant enhancement was noticed in the wear resistance of all tested groups ( value <0.001, effect size = 0.685), except for the T7 and S7 groups. Conclusion. The flexural strength, impact strength, and wear resistance improved with both concentrations of ZrO2 and low TiO2 and SiO2 concentrations. The hardness increased with both concentrations of ZrO2 and high TiO2 and SiO2 concentrations.
Biomaterials Used for Periodontal Disease Treatment: Focusing on Immunomodulatory Properties
The growing use of biomaterials with different therapeutic purposes increases the need for their physiological understanding as well as to seek its integration with the human body. Chronic inflammatory local pathologies, generally associated with infectious or autoimmunity processes, have been a current therapeutic target due to the difficulty in their treatment. The recent development of biomaterials with immunomodulatory capacity would then become one of the possible strategies for their management in local pathologies, by intervening in situ, without generating alterations in the systemic immune response. The treatment of periodontal disease as an inflammatory entity has involved the use of different approaches and biomaterials. There is no conclusive, high evidence about the use of these biomaterials in the regeneration of periodontitis sequelae, so the profession keeps looking for other different strategies. The use of biomaterials with immunomodulatory properties could be one, with a promising future. This review of the literature summarizes the scientific evidence about biomaterials used in the treatment of periodontal disease.
Investigation of CO2 Extract of Portulaca oleracea for Antioxidant Activity from Raw Material Cultivated in Kazakhstan
Medicinal plants remain as an important resource in the fight against many diseases, especially in developing countries. Antioxidants are substances capable of delaying, retarding, and preventing the oxidation of lipids or substances that delay or prevent free radical reactions during lipid oxidation. Natural antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids are a safe alternative to chemical antioxidants. In present work, results of antioxidant activity of raw materials from the cultivated plant Portulaca oleracea are presented. The extraction time was optimized to 780 minutes; the yield of extractive substances was 1.25% in the production of CO2 extract under subcritical conditions. For the first time, the antioxidant activity of Portulaca oleracea CO2 extract was determined by the amperometric method. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) chemical analysis of Portulaca oleracea CO2 extract dissolved in hexane revealed 37 components, including a complex mixture of aldehydes, alkanes, alkenes, esters, diterpenes, steroids, vitamin E, and carbohydrates. The investigation results showed that the Portulaca oleracea CO2 extract was promising for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries and had great potential for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by oxidative stress.
Development of Novel Antimicrobial Dental Composite Resin with Nano Cerium Oxide Fillers
Objectives. To assess the antibacterial efficacy of experimental dental composite resin with cerium oxide nanoparticles as fillers. Methods. The cerium oxide nanoparticles were prepared by the coprecipitation procedure. Synthesized 3wt% CeO2 nanoparticles were added to the composite resin as antibacterial filler. Experimental composite resin was manually prepared by adding ingredients. The resin matrix consisted of two mixed monomers, bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, diketone as the photo initiator, and N, N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate as a coinitiator. The antibacterial efficacy against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus aureus, and Lactobacillus spp. bacterial strains was tested using the microdilution method keeping commercially available 3M Filtek Z250 restorative composite as control. Results. The experimental dental composite demonstrated 99.503% efficacy against Streptococcus mutans, 99.441% efficacy against Streptococcus mitis, 99.416% efficacy against Streptococcus aureus, and 99.233% efficacy against Lactobacillus spp. Conclusion. Integrating cerium oxide nanoparticles as fillers into dental composite resin can be promising in terms of antibacterial activity, provided furthermore study has to be conducted to examine other properties. Clinical Significance. Previous studies attempted adding CeO2 nanoparticles into acrylic resins that showed improvement in mechanical properties, but literature is nil on the dental composite resin and cerium oxide nanoparticles. This study demonstrates the development of an experimental antibacterial dental composite resin that can resolve most of the problems related to secondary caries around dental composite restorations.