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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2011, Article ID 232574, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/232574
Research Article

In Vivo Evaluation of an Injectable Premixed Radiopaque Calcium Phosphate Cement

1Division of Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden
2Department of Human Physiology and Clinical Experimental Research, Semmelweis University, Budapest H-1095, Hungary
3Department of Orthopedics, Uppsala University, 75237 Uppsala, Sweden
4Department of Orthopedics, Semmelweis University, Budapest H1113, Hungary

Received 15 October 2010; Revised 17 February 2011; Accepted 17 March 2011

Academic Editor: Sanjukta Deb

Copyright © 2011 Jonas Åberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this work a radiopaque premixed calcium phosphate cement (pCPC) has been developed and evaluated in vivo. Radiopacity was obtained by adding 0–40 % zirconia to the cement paste. The effects of zirconia on setting time, strength and radiopacity were evaluated. In the in vivo study a 2 by 3.5 mm cylindrical defect in a rat vertebrae was filled with either the pCPC, PMMA or bone chips. Nano-SPECT CT analysis was used to monitor osteoblast activity during bone regeneration. The study showed that by adding zirconia to the cement the setting time becomes longer and the compressive strength is reduced. All materials evaluated in the in vivo study filled the bone defect and there was a strong osteoblast activity at the injury site. In spite of the osteoblast activity, PMMA blocked bone healing and the bone chips group showed minimal new bone formation. At 12 weeks the pCPC was partially resorbed and replaced by new bone with good bone ingrowth. The radiopaque pCPC may be considered to be used for minimal invasive treatment of vertebral fractures since it has good handling, radiopacity and allows healing of cancellous bone in parallel with the resorption of the cement.