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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2011, Article ID 607971, 11 pages
Research Article

The Effect of Exposed Glass Fibers and Particles of Bioactive Glass on the Surface Wettability of Composite Implants

1Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Lemminkäisenkatu 2, 20520 Turku, Finland
2Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre (TCBC), University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
3Finnish Doctoral Program in Oral Sciences (FINDOS), Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
4Department of Biomaterials Science, Institute of Dentistry and BioCity Turku Biomaterial Research Program, University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
5Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), University of Turku, 20520 Turku, Finland
6Clinic of Oral Diseases, Turku University Central Hospital, 20520 Turku, Finland

Received 1 May 2011; Accepted 13 September 2011

Academic Editor: Sanjukta Deb

Copyright © 2011 Aous A. Abdulmajeed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Measurement of the wettability of a material is a predictive index of cytocompatibility. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of exposed E-glass fibers and bioactive glass (BAG) particles on the surface wettability behavior of composite implants. Two different groups were investigated: (a) fiber reinforced composites (FRCs) with different fiber orientations and (b) polymer composites with different wt. % of BAG particles. Photopolymerized and heat postpolymerized composite substrates were made for both groups. The surface wettability, topography, and roughness were analyzed. Equilibrium contact angles were measured using the sessile drop method. Three liquids were used as a probe for surface free energy (SFE) calculations. SFE values were calculated from contact angles obtained on smooth surfaces. The surface with transverse distribution of fibers showed higher ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ) polar ( 𝛾 P ) and total SFE ( 𝛾 T O T ) components (16.9 and 51.04 mJ/m2, resp.) than the surface with in-plane distribution of fibers (13.77 and 48.27 mJ/m2, resp.). The increase in BAG particle wt. % increased the polar ( 𝛾 P ) value, while the dispersive ( 𝛾 D ) value decreased. Postpolymerization by heat treatment improved the SFE components on all the surfaces investigated ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 0 1 ). Composites containing E-glass fibers and BAG particles are hydrophilic materials that show good wettability characteristics.