Figure 12: Concept of self-adjustment of Young’s modulus in implant rod. If Young’s modulus of the deformation-induced phase is higher than that of the matrix, Young’s modulus of only the deformed part is increased by bending during operation, whereas that of the nondeformed part remains low; thus, the requirements of both surgeons and patients can be satisfied. High Young’s modulus suppresses the spring back of the implant rod, whereas low Young’s modulus inhibits the stress shielding effect, thereby enabling good handling ability of implant rod and remodelling of healthy bone, respectively.