Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript

This manuscript has been retracted as it was submitted for publication without the knowledge and approval of the co-author John Hunt.

View the full Retraction here.


  1. S. C. P. Cachinho and F. Pu, “Free radical production in immune cell systems induced by Ti, Ti6Al4V and SS assessed by chemiluminescence probe pholasin assay,” International Journal of Biomaterials, vol. 2012, Article ID 380845, 7 pages, 2012.
International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2012, Article ID 380845, 7 pages
Research Article

Free Radical Production in Immune Cell Systems Induced by Ti, Ti6Al4V and SS Assessed by Chemiluminescence Probe Pholasin Assay

Clinical Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK

Received 12 March 2012; Accepted 13 May 2012

Academic Editor: Mohamed Rahaman

Copyright © 2012 Sandra C. P. Cachinho and Fanrong Pu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The oxidative burst of human blood cells in the presence of different metal materials was investigated using chemiluminescence assay. Commercial pure titanium (Ti), titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), and stainless steel 316L (SS) in particulate form with < 20 μm in size were used. The effect of particulate materials opsonisation on the upregulation of the respiratory burst production by blood cells was also assessed. The largest chemiluminescence response was achieved after simultaneous injection of the stimulants fMLP+PMA. Moreover, Ti and SS induced a greater inflammatory reaction compared to Ti6Al4V, since the respiratory burst mounted was higher for both materials after opsonisation treatment. These results suggest that in vitro chemiluminescence response and respiratory burst measurements proved to be composition and treatment dependent.