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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 531202, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/531202
Review Article

Soft and Hard Tissue Management in Implant Therapy—Part I: Surgical Concepts

Institute of Clinical Dentistry, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Largo A. Gemelli, 8 00168 Rome, Italy

Received 14 March 2012; Revised 29 May 2012; Accepted 6 June 2012

Academic Editor: Osamu Komiyama

Copyright © 2012 Antonio D'Addona et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Implant therapy has become a reliable and predictable treatment alternative for the replacement of missing teeth with conventional removable and fixed partial dentures. Recently though, in the pursuit for improved esthetics, the literature has dedicated a considerable amount of its research on the successful maintenance and regeneration of the surrounding gingiva and bone, which are lost following extraction of a tooth. Thoroughly analyzing the anatomic situation and well-planned treatment has become a requirement, because incorrectly planned and positioned implants may jeopardize long-term esthetic and functional prognosis. In addition, many types of biocompatible materials, autogenous hard and soft tissue grafts, and different surgical techniques have been developed, and their viability has been investigated. As a result, implant specialists have gained a greater understanding of the dynamics and anatomical and biological concepts of the periodontium and peri-implant tissues both at the surgical and prosthetic phases of treatment, which contributes to better soft and hard tissue management (SHTM). This may further contribute to achieving a superior final result which is obtained by having a harmonious soft tissue profile, a correctly placed and contoured final restoration, and the reestablishment of masticatory function and phonetics.