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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 354125, 6 pages
Research Article

Plasma Treatment Maintains Surface Energy of the Implant Surface and Enhances Osseointegration

1Department of Biomaterials and Biomimetics, College of Dentistry, New York University, Room 813a, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010, USA
2Department of Surgery and Integrated Clinic, São Paulo State University, 16015 Araçatuba, SP, Brazil
3Department of Postgraduate Dentistry, UNIGRANRIO, 25071 Duque de Caxias, RJ, Brazil
4Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö, Sweden
5Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery and Implantology, University of Uberlândia, 38408 Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

Received 31 October 2012; Accepted 25 November 2012

Academic Editor: Carlos Nelson Elias

Copyright © 2013 Fernando P. S. Guastaldi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The surface energy of the implant surface has an impact on osseointegration. In this study, 2 surfaces: nonwashed resorbable blasting media (NWRBM; control) and Ar-based nonthermal plasma 30 days (Plasma 30 days; experimental), were investigated with a focus on the surface energy. The surface energy was characterized by the Owens-Wendt-Rabel-Kaelble method and the chemistry by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Five adult beagle dogs received 8 implants ( per surface, per tibia). After 2 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and half of the implants ( ) were removal torqued and the other half were histologically processed ( ). The bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) were evaluated on the histologic sections. The XPS analysis showed peaks of C, Ca, O, and P for the control and experimental surfaces. While no significant difference was observed for BIC parameter ( ), a higher level for torque ( ) and BAFO parameter ( ) was observed for the experimental group. The surface elemental chemistry was modified by the plasma and lasted for 30 days after treatment resulting in improved biomechanical fixation and bone formation at 2 weeks compared to the control group.