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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2013, Article ID 412482, 10 pages
Research Article

Bone Response to Surface-Modified Titanium Implants: Studies on the Early Tissue Response to Implants with Different Surface Characteristics

1Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden
2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, SÄS, 501 82 Borås, Sweden
3Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
4BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Göteborg, Sweden
5Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden
6Nano Bridging Molecules SA, 1196 Gland, Switzerland
7Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
8Department of Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, 501 15 Borås, Sweden

Received 9 April 2013; Revised 7 August 2013; Accepted 7 August 2013

Academic Editor: Bikramjit Basu

Copyright © 2013 C. Larsson Wexell et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In a series of experimental studies, the bone formation around systematically modified titanium implants is analyzed. In the present study, three different surface modifications were prepared and evaluated. Glow-discharge cleaning and oxidizing resulted in a highly stoichiometric TiO2 surface, while a glow-discharge treatment in nitrogen gas resulted in implants with essentially a surface of titanium nitride, covered with a very thin titanium oxide. Finally, hydrogen peroxide treatment of implants resulted in an almost stoichiometric TiO2, rich in hydroxyl groups on the surface. Machined commercially pure titanium implants served as controls. Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed no significant differences in oxide thickness or surface roughness parameters, but differences in the surface chemical composition and apparent topography were observed. After surface preparation, the implants were inserted in cortical bone of rabbits and evaluated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Light microscopic evaluation of the tissue response showed that all implants were in contact with bone and had a large proportion of newly formed bone within the threads after 6 weeks. There were no morphological differences between the four groups. Our study shows that a high degree of bone contact and bone formation can be achieved with titanium implants of different surface composition and topography.