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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 513680, 10 pages
Review Article

Variations to the Nanotube Surface for Bone Regeneration

Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411, USA

Received 1 June 2012; Accepted 31 March 2013

Academic Editor: Tadashi Kokubo

Copyright © 2013 Christine J. Frandsen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The complex mechanisms of the bone cell-surface interactions are yet to be completely understood, and researchers continue to strive to uncover the fully optimized implant material for perfect osseointegration. A particularly fascinating area of research involves the study of nanostructured surfaces, which are believed to enhance osteogenic behavior, possibly due to the mimicry of components of the extracellular matrix of bone. There is a growing body of data that emphasizes the promise of the titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotube architecture as an advanced orthopedic implant material. The review herein highlights findings regarding TiO2 nanotube surfaces for bone regeneration and the osteogenic effects of minute changes to the surface such as tube size and surface chemistry.