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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 693793, 6 pages
Research Article

Pressure Shift Freezing as Potential Alternative for Generation of Decellularized Scaffolds

1German Heart Center Munich, 80636 Munich, Germany
2Institute for Food Biotechnology and Process Engineering, Technical University Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany
3Institute of Pathology, LMU Munich, 80337 Munich, Germany

Received 5 March 2013; Accepted 16 May 2013

Academic Editor: Rosalind Labow

Copyright © 2013 S. Eichhorn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Protocols using chemical reagents for scaffold decellularization can cause changes in the properties of the matrix, depending on the type of tissue and the chemical reagent. Technologies using physical techniques may be possible alternatives for the production grafts with potential superior matrix characteristics. Material and Methods. We tested four different technologies for scaffold decellularization. Group 1: high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), 1 GPa; Group 2: pressure shift freezing (PSF); Group 3: pulsed electric fields (PEF); Group 4: control group: detergent (SDS). The degree of decellularization was assessed by histological analysis and the measurement of residual DNA. Results. Tissue treated with PSF showed a decellularization with a penetration depth (PD) of 1.5 mm and residual DNA content of . HHD treatment caused a PD of 0.2 mm with a residual DNA content of . PD in PEF was 0.5 mm, and the residual DNA content was . In the SDS group, PD was found to be 5 mm, and the DNA content was determined at . Conclusion. PSF showed promising results as a possible technique for scaffold decellularization. The penetration depth of PSF has to be optimized, and the mechanical as well as the biological characteristics of decellularized grafts have to be evaluated.