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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2016, Article ID 9169371, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9169371
Research Article

Oxidative Nanopatterning of Titanium Surface Influences mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Human Alveolar Bone Osteoblastic Cells

1Cell Culture Laboratory, Department of Morphology, Physiology and Basic Pathology, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14040-904 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
2Molecular Immunogenetics Group, Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, 14049-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
3Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5

Received 26 November 2015; Revised 30 March 2016; Accepted 5 April 2016

Academic Editor: Esmaiel Jabbari

Copyright © 2016 Maidy Rehder Wimmers Ferreira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Titanium implants have been extensively used in orthopedic and dental applications. It is well known that micro- and nanoscale surface features of biomaterials affect cellular events that control implant-host tissue interactions. To improve our understanding of how multiscale surface features affect cell behavior, we used microarrays to evaluate the transcriptional profile of osteoblastic cells from human alveolar bone cultured on engineered titanium surfaces, exhibiting the following topographies: nanotexture (N), nano+submicrotexture (NS), and rough microtexture (MR), obtained by modulating experimental parameters (temperature and solution composition) of a simple yet efficient chemical treatment with a H2SO4/H2O2 solution. Biochemical assays showed that cell culture proliferation augmented after 10 days, and cell viability increased gradually over 14 days. Among the treated surfaces, we observed an increase of alkaline phosphatase activity as a function of the surface texture, with higher activity shown by cells adhering onto nanotextured surfaces. Nevertheless, the rough microtexture group showed higher amounts of calcium than nanotextured group. Microarray data showed differential expression of 716 mRNAs and 32 microRNAs with functions associated with osteogenesis. Results suggest that oxidative nanopatterning of titanium surfaces induces changes in the metabolism of osteoblastic cells and contribute to the explanation of the mechanisms that control cell responses to micro- and nanoengineered surfaces.