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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2017, Article ID 1743765, 13 pages
Research Article

Encapsulation of Nicardipine Hydrochloride and Release from Biodegradable Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microparticles by Double Emulsion Process: Effect of Emulsion Stability and Different Parameters on Drug Entrapment

1Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand
2Neurosurgery Unit, Surgery Department, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Narumol Kreua-ongarjnukool;

Received 20 July 2017; Revised 26 September 2017; Accepted 18 October 2017; Published 8 November 2017

Academic Editor: Ravin Narain

Copyright © 2017 Nopparuj Soomherun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is an important material used in drug delivery when controlled release is required. The purpose of this research is to design and characterize PLGA microparticles (PLGA MPs) implants for the controlled release of nicardipine hydrochloride (NCH) in vitro. This study used the water-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/w2) double emulsion and solvent diffusion/evaporation approach to prepare PLGA MPs. Optimal processing conditions were found, such as polymer content, surfactant type, stabilizer concentration, inner and outer aqueous phase volumes, and stirring speed. The PLGA MPs for use as nicardipine hydrochloride (NCH) loading and release had spherical morphology, and the average diameter was smaller than μm. The release kinetics were modeled to elucidate the possible mechanism of drug release. In vitro release studies indicated that the NCH release rate is slow and continuous. PLGA MPs are an interesting alternative drug delivery system, especially for use with NCH for biomedical applications.