Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2018, Article ID 1539678, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1539678
Review Article

Graphene Family Nanomaterials: Properties and Potential Applications in Dentistry

1Department of General Dentistry, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 310052, China
2Zhejiang University, 310058, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yanzhen Zhang; nc.ude.ujz@4001912

Received 3 August 2018; Revised 11 November 2018; Accepted 28 November 2018; Published 9 December 2018

Academic Editor: Carlo Galli

Copyright © 2018 Ziyu Ge et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. Feng, L. Wu, and X. Qu, “New horizons for diagnostics and therapeutic applications of graphene and graphene oxide,” Adv. Mater, vol. 25, pp. 168–186, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  2. V. Biju, “Chemical modifications and bioconjugate reactions of nanomaterials for sensing, imaging, drug delivery and therapy,” Chemical Society Reviews, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 744–764, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. L. C. Geraldine et al., “A graphene-based physiometer array for the analysis of single biological cells,” Sci. Rep, vol. 4, p. 6865, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  4. Y. Zhang, T. R. Nayak, H. Hong, and W. Cai, “Graphene: a versatile nanoplatform for biomedical applications,” Nanoscale, vol. 4, no. 13, pp. 3833–3842, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. N. Chatterjee, H.-J. Eom, and J. Choi, “A systems toxicology approach to the surface functionality control of graphene-cell interactions,” Biomaterials, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 1109–1127, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Y. Wu, S. S. A. An, and J. Hulme, “Current applications of graphene oxide in nanomedicine,” International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 10, no. 9, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  7. H. Wang, W. Gu, N. Xiao, L. Ye, and Q. Xu, “Chlorotoxin-conjugated graphene oxide for targeted delivery of an anticancer drug,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1433–1442, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Goenka, V. Sant, and S. Sant, “Graphene-based nanomaterials for drug delivery and tissue engineering,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 173, no. 1, pp. 75–88, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. B. Gadgil, P. Damlin, and C. Kvarnström, “Graphene vs. reduced graphene oxide: A comparative study of graphene-based nanoplatforms on electrochromic switching kinetics,” Carbon, vol. 96, pp. 377–381, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. X. Guo and N. Mei, “Assessment of the toxic potential of graphene family nanomaterials,” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 105–115, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Malik, F. M. Ruddock, A. H. Dowling et al., “Graphene composites with dental and biomedical applicability,” Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 801–808, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. X. Ding, H. Liu, and Y. Fan, “Graphene-Based Materials in Regenerative Medicine,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, vol. 4, no. 10, pp. 1451–1468, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Jennifer and W. Maciej, “Nanoparticle technology as a double-edged sword: cytotoxic, genotoxic and epigenetic effects on living cells,” Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, vol. 4, pp. 53–63, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. N. Wei, C. Lv, and Z. Xu, “Wetting of graphene oxide: A molecular dynamics study,” Langmuir, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 3572–3578, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. B. Seabra, A. J. Paula, R. De Lima, O. L. Alves, and N. Durán, “Nanotoxicity of graphene and graphene oxide,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 159–168, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Wu, L. Xia, P. Han et al., “Graphene-oxide-modified β-tricalcium phosphate bioceramics stimulate in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis,” Carbon, vol. 93, pp. 116–129, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Peng, Z. Xu, Z. Liu et al., “An iron-based green approach to 1-h production of single-layer graphene oxide,” Nature communications, vol. 6, p. 5716, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  18. A. Nel, T. Xia, L. Mädler, and N. Li, “Toxic potential of materials at the nanolevel,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5761, pp. 622–627, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. Gurunathan, J. W. Han, V. Eppakayala, and J.-H. Kim, “Green synthesis of graphene and its cytotoxic effects in human breast cancer cells,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 1015–1027, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Jarosz, M. Skoda, and I. Dudek, “Oxidative stress and mitochondrial activation as the main mechanisms underlying graphene toxicity against human cancer cells,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2016, Article ID 5851035, 14 pages, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Olteanu, A. Filip, C. Socaci et al., “Cytotoxicity assessment of graphene-based nanomaterials on human dental follicle stem cells,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 136, pp. 791–798, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Xie, T. Cao, F. J. Rodríguez-Lozano, E. K. Luong-Van, and V. Rosa, “Graphene for the development of the next-generation of biocomposites for dental and medical applications,” Dental Materials, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 765–774, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. F. De Faria, D. S. T. Martinez, S. M. M. Meira et al., “Anti-adhesion and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles supported on graphene oxide sheets,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 113, pp. 115–124, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. J. Ma, J. Zhang, Z. Xiong, Y. Yong, and X. S. Zhao, “Preparation, characterization and antibacterial properties of silver-modified graphene oxide,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 3350–3352, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. Tang, Q. Chen, L. Xu et al., “Graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite as a highly effective antibacterial agent with species-specific mechanisms,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 3867–3874, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. W.-P. Xu, L.-C. Zhang, J.-P. Li et al., “Facile synthesis of silver@graphene oxide nanocomposites and their enhanced antibacterial properties,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 4593–4597, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Moritz and M. Geszke-Moritz, “The newest achievements in synthesis, immobilization and practical applications of antibacterial nanoparticles,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 228, pp. 596–613, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. F. Perreault, A. F. De Faria, S. Nejati, and M. Elimelech, “Antimicrobial Properties of Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Why Size Matters,” ACS Nano, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 7226–7236, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. X. Zou, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, and Y. Luo, “Mechanisms of the Antimicrobial Activities of Graphene Materials,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 2064–2077, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Panda, T. K. Rout, A. D. Prusty, P. M. Ajayan, and S. Nayak, “Electron Transfer Directed Antibacterial Properties of Graphene Oxide on Metals,” Advanced Materials, vol. 30, no. 7, 2018. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. Dellieu, E. Lawarée, N. Reckinger et al., “Do CVD grown graphene films have antibacterial activity on metallic substrates?” Carbon, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 310–316, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. P. D. Marsh, “Dental plaque as a biofilm and a microbial community – implications for health and disease,” BMC Oral Health, vol. 6, no. Suppl 1, p. S14. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. J. He, X. Zhu, Z. Qi et al., “Killing dental pathogens using antibacterial graphene oxide,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 5605–5611, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. I. Rago, A. Bregnocchi, E. Zanni et al., “Antimicrobial activity of graphene nanoplatelets against Streptococcus mutans,” in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE-NANO '15), pp. 9–12, July 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Dubey, K. Ellepola, F. E. D. Decroix et al., “Graphene onto medical grade titanium: an atom-thick multimodal coating that promotes osteoblast maturation and inhibits biofilm formation from distinct species,” Nanotoxicology, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 274–289, 2018. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Kulshrestha, S. Khan, R. Meena, B. R. Singh, and A. U. Khan, “A graphene/zinc oxide nanocomposite film protects dental implant surfaces against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans,” Biofouling, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1281–1294, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Y. Ma, D. Bai, X. Hu et al., “Robust and Antibacterial Polymer/Mechanically Exfoliated Graphene Nanocomposite Fibers for Biomedical Applications,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 3002–3010, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. C. Wu, H. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen et al., “Graphene oxide conjugated with polymers: a study of culture condition to determine whether a bacterial growth stimulant or an antimicrobial agent?” Journal of nanobiotechnology, vol. 16, no. 1, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  39. H. Ji, H. Sun, and X. Qu, “Antibacterial applications of graphene-based nanomaterials: Recent achievements and challenges,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 105, pp. 176–189, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. K. Niibe, F. Suehiro, M. Oshima, M. Nishimura, T. Kuboki, and H. Egusa, “Challenges for stem cell-based “regenerative prosthodontics”,” Journal of Prosthodontic Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. E. A. Abou Neel, W. Chrzanowski, V. M. Salih, H.-W. Kim, and J. C. Knowles, “Tissue engineering in dentistry,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 915–928, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. Sammartino, D. M. D. Ehrenfest, J. A. Shibli, and P. Galindo-Moreno, “Tissue Engineering and Dental Implantology: Biomaterials, New Technologies, and Stem Cells,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2016, Article ID 5713168, 3 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. A. Zadpoor, “Bone tissue regeneration: The role of scaffold geometry,” Biomaterials Science, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 231–245, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. R. Nayak, H. Andersen, V. S. Makam et al., “Graphene for controlled and accelerated osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells,” ACS Nano, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 4670–4678, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Nishida, H. Miyaji, H. Takita et al., “Graphene oxide coating facilitates the bioactivity of scaffold material for tissue engineering,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 6S, p. 06JD04, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. C. Wei, Z. Liu, F. Jiang, B. Zeng, M. Huang, and D. Yu, “Cellular behaviours of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells towards pristine graphene oxide nanosheets,” Cell Proliferation, vol. 50, no. 5, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. Nishida, H. Miyaji, A. Kato et al., “Graphene oxide scaffold accelerates cellular proliferative response and alveolar bone healing of tooth extraction socket,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 11, pp. 2265–2277, 2016. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Dinescu, M. Ionita, and A. M. Pandele, “In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of chitosan/graphene oxide 3D scaffold composites designed for bone tissue engineering,” Biomed Mater Eng, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 2249–2256, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  49. B. Mead, A. Logan, M. Berry, W. Leadbeater, and B. A. Scheven, “Concise Review: Dental Pulp Stem Cells: A Novel Cell Therapy for Retinal and Central Nervous System Repair,” Stem Cells, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. V. Rosa, H. Xie, N. Dubey et al., “Graphene oxide-based substrate: physical and surface characterization, cytocompatibility and differentiation potential of dental pulp stem cells,” Dental Materials, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1019–1025, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. Guo, Y. Hou, L. Song, S. Zhu, F. Lin, and Y. Bai, “D-Mannose Enhanced Immunomodulation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells via Inhibiting IL-6 Secretion,” Stem Cells International, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  52. H. Xie, T. Cao, J. V. Gomes, A. H. Castro Neto, and V. Rosa, “Two and three-dimensional graphene substrates to magnify osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells,” Carbon, vol. 93, pp. 266–275, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. X. Meng, P. Leslie, Y. Zhang, and J. Dong, “Stem cells in a three-dimensional scaffold environment,” Springerplus, vol. 3, no. 1, p. 80, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  54. B. J. Lawrence and S. V. Madihally, “Cell colonization in degradable 3D porous matrices.,” Cell adhesion & migration, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. F. J. Rodríguez-Lozano, D. García-Bernal, S. Aznar-Cervantes et al., “Effects of composite films of silk fibroin and graphene oxide on the proliferation, cell viability and mesenchymal phenotype of periodontal ligament stem cells,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2731–2741, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Vera-Sánchez, S. Aznar-Cervantes, E. Jover et al., “Silk-fibroin and graphene oxide composites promote human periodontal ligament stem cell spontaneous differentiation into osteo/cementoblast-like cells,” Stem Cells and Development, vol. 25, no. 22, pp. 1742–1754, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Torii, T. W. Tsutsui, N. Watanabe, and K. Konishi, “Bone morphogenetic protein 7 induces cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells,” Odontology, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. F. Rupp, L. Liang, J. Geis-Gerstorfer, L. Scheideler, and F. Hüttig, “Surface characteristics of dental implants: A review,” Dental Materials, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 40–57, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. N. Robitaille, D. N. Reed, J. D. Walters, and P. S. Kumar, “Periodontal and peri-implant diseases: identical or fraternal infections?” Molecular Oral Microbiology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 285–301, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. X. Wu, S.-J. Ding, K. Lin, and J. Su, “A review on the biocompatibility and potential applications of graphene in inducing cell differentiation and tissue regeneration,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 3084–3102, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. R. Rasouli, A. Barhoum, and H. Uludag, “A review of nanostructured surfaces and materials for dental implants: surface coating, patterning and functionalization for improved performance,” Biomaterials Science, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  62. Q. Zhou, P. Yang, X. Li, H. Liu, and S. Ge, “Bioactivity of periodontal ligament stem cells on sodium titanate coated with graphene oxide,” Scientific Reports, vol. 6, p. 19343, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Jin, L. Zhang, M. Shi, Y. Zhang, and Q. Wang, “Ti-GO-Ag nanocomposite: The effect of content level on the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 12, pp. 4209–4224, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. Gopi, N. Murugan, S. Ramya, and L. Kavitha, “Electrodeposition of a porous strontium-substituted hydroxyapatite/zinc oxide duplex layer on AZ91 magnesium alloy for orthopedic applications,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 2, no. 34, pp. 5531–5540, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. Suo, N. Jiang, Y. Wang et al., “The enhancement of osseointegration using a graphene oxide/chitosan/hydroxyapatite composite coating on titanium fabricated by electrophoretic deposition,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  66. J. Li, G. Wang, H. Geng et al., “CVD growth of graphene on NiTi alloy for enhanced biological activity,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 7, no. 36, pp. 19876–19881, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. W. G. La, M. Jin, S. Park et al., “Delivery of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and substance P using graphene oxide for bone regeneration,” International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 9, supplement 1, p. 107, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  68. N. Ren, J. Li, J. Qiu et al., “Growth and accelerated differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on graphene-oxide-coated titanate with dexamethasone on surface of titanium implants,” Dental Materials, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 525–535, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. L. P. Morin, N. Dubey, F. E. D. Decroix, E. K. Luong-Van, A. C. Neto, and V. Rosa, “Graphene transfer to 3-dimensional surfaces: a vacuum-assisted dry transfer method,” 2D Materials, vol. 4, no. 2, Article ID 025060, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  70. M. Yamaguchi, Y. Noiri, Y. Itoh et al., “Factors that cause endodontic failures in general practices in Japan,” BMC oral health, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 70, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  71. V. Chrepa, G. A. Kotsakis, T. C. Pagonis, and K. M. Hargreaves, “The effect of photodynamic therapy in root canal disinfection: a systematic review,” Journal of Endodontics, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 891–898, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. Akbari, M. Pourhajibagher, F. Hosseini et al., “The effect of indocyanine green loaded on a novel nano-graphene oxide for high performance of photodynamic therapy against Enterococcus faecalis,” Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, vol. 20, pp. 148–153, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. A. Farook, V. Shah, D. Lenouvel, O. Sheikh, Z. Sadiq, and L. Cascarini, “Guidelines for management of sodium hypochlorite extrusion injuries,” British Dental Journal, vol. 217, no. 12, pp. 679–684, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. K. Sharma, M. Bhat, V. Kumar, D. Mazumder, S. V. Singh, and M. Bansal, “Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Graphene Silver Composite Nanoparticles against E. faecalis as Root Canal Irrigant: An ex-vivo study,” Int. J. Pharm. Med. Res, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 267–272, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  75. N. Dubey, S. S. Rajan, Y. D. Bello, K.-S. Min, and V. Rosa, “Graphene nanosheets to improve physico-mechanical properties of bioactive calcium silicate cements,” Materials , vol. 10, no. 6, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Prati and M. G. Gandolfi, “Calcium silicate bioactive cements: biological perspectives and clinical applications,” Dental Materials, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 351–370, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. M. Mehrali, E. Moghaddam, S. F. S. Shirazi et al., “Mechanical and in vitro biological performance of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced calcium silicate composite,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 9, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. K. Gong, Z. Pan, A. H. Korayem et al., “Reinforcing effects of graphene oxide on portland cement paste,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 27, no. 2, Article ID A4014010, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  79. M. S. Baig and G. J. P. Fleming, “Conventional glass-ionomer materials: a review of the developments in glass powder, polyacid liquid and the strategies of reinforcement,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 897–912, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. L. Sun, Z. Yan, Y. Duan, J. Zhang, and B. Liu, “Improvement of the mechanical, tribological and antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by fluorinated graphene,” Dental Materials, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. e115–e127, 2018. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. C. Sarosi, A. R. Biris, A. Antoniac et al., “The nanofiller effect on properties of experimental graphene dental nanocomposites,” Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, vol. 30, no. 16, pp. 1779–1794, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Battino, M. Greabu, and B. Calenic, “Oxidative stress in oral cavity: interplay between reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in health, infammation, and cancer,” in Textbook of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection: the science of free radical biology and disease, D. Armstrong and R. D. Stratton, Eds., pp. 155–166, Wiley Blackwell, London, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  83. A. Bregnocchi, E. Zanni, D. Uccelletti et al., “Graphene-based dental adhesive with anti-biofilm activity,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 15, no. 1, 2017. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Pajoumshariati, H. Shirali, S. K. Yavari et al., “GBR membrane of novel poly (butylene succinate-co-glycolate) co-polyester co-polymer for periodontal application,” Scientific Reports, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 7513, 2018. View at Google Scholar
  85. M. Radunovic, M. De Colli, P. De Marco et al., “Graphene oxide enrichment of collagen membranes improves DPSCs differentiation and controls inflammation occurrence,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, vol. 105, no. 8, pp. 2312–2320, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. K. Kawamoto, H. Miyaji, E. Nishida et al., “Characterization and evaluation of graphene oxide scaffold for periodontal wound healing of class II furcation defects in dog,” International journal of nanomedicine, vol. 13, p. 2365, 2018. View at Google Scholar