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International Journal of Biomaterials
Volume 2018, Article ID 5361632, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/5361632
Research Article

Debridement of Bacterial Biofilms with TiO2/H2O2 Solutions and Visible Light Irradiation

1Division of Applied Material Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 21, Sweden
2Division of Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 21, Sweden

Correspondence should be addressed to Oscar Janson; es.uu.mortsgna@nosnaj.racso

Received 10 April 2018; Accepted 6 June 2018; Published 2 July 2018

Academic Editor: Wen-Cheng Chen

Copyright © 2018 Oscar Janson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. The aim of the study was to explore the debridement efficacy of different solutions of H2O2 and rutile particles against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms attached to titanium surfaces when exposed to visible light. Materials and Methods. Titanium discs cultivated with biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were subjected for 1 min to suspensions consisting of rutile particles mixed with high (950 mM) or low (2 mM) concentrations of H2O2 under visible light irradiation (405 nm; 2.1 mW/cm2). Discs were rinsed and the degree of debridement was determined through scanning electron microscopy and viability assessment of the remaining bacteria using luminescence measurements and/or a metabolic activity assay. Results. Cleaning mixtures containing the higher concentration of H2O2 showed a significantly improved debridement compared to the negative control in all experiments. The addition of rutile particles was shown to have a statistically significant effect in one test with S. epidermidis. Limited evidence of the catalytic effect of visible light irradiation was seen, but effects were relatively small and statistically insignificant. Conclusions. H2O2 at a concentration of 950 mM proved to be the strongest contribution to the debridement and bactericidal effect of the cleaning techniques tested in this study.