Table 1: Surface properties obtained from immersing Ti substrates in various H2O2 baths.

ProcedureCharacteristic Results

200 mL of 35% H2O2 at 60°C for 2 hrs, then 48 hrs at R.T. [27](i) Dense and amorphous HAp composite layer
(ii) Similar characteristics to NaOH pretreatment
(iii) Induced fast formation of uniform HA coating

10 mL of 5 M H2O2 at 60°C for 24 hrs. [32](i) Produced thicker and more porous oxide layer (~0.06 μm)
(ii) Provided more favorable sites for CaP nucleation
(iii) Formation of basic TiOH groups was accelerated

5M H2O2/0.1 M HNO3 (pH 7) at 80°C for 20 min. [31](i) Anatase-type TiO2 oxide layer with very low crystallinity
(ii) Obtained sponge-like morphology
(iii) Homogenous and uniform formation of HAp clusters