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International Journal of Corrosion
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5819202, 9 pages
Review Article

Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Shamsad Ahmad; as.ude.mpufk@dasmahs

Received 31 August 2016; Revised 12 January 2017; Accepted 26 January 2017; Published 22 February 2017

Academic Editor: Flavio Deflorian

Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Umar Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, , of concrete. Therefore, is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of with time due to change in the microstructure of concrete during early period of cement hydration. In this paper, a review is presented on the development of chloride diffusion models by incorporating the effects of the key factors into basic Fick’s second law of diffusion. Determination of corrosion initiation time using chloride diffusion models is also explained. The information presented in this paper would be useful for accurate prediction of corrosion initiation time of RC structures subjected to chloride exposure, considering the effects of chloride binding, effect of time and space on , and interaction effect of multidirectional chloride ingress.