Acute Genetic Damage Induced by Ethanol and Corticosterone Seems to Modulate Hippocampal Astrocyte SignalingRead the full article
International Journal of Cell Biology publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of cell biology.
International Journal of Cell Biology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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A Short Post-Reattachment Ultrasensitive Window of Time in Human Cancer Cells as Therapeutic Target of Prolonged Low-Dose Administration of Specific Compounds
Prolonged low-dose administration (PLDA) of several FDA-approved drugs for noncancer conditions or dietary compounds is associated with a lower incidence of specific types of cancers and with the lower formation of metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown; there is a discrepancy between the concentration of drugs needed to kill cancer cells in vitro and the actual serum levels (10 and >1000 times lower) found in patients. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that clonogenicity may be the target of PLDA. We compared the effect of nigericin (NIG) and menadione (MEN) on the human A549 and H460 lung and MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines using routine MTT and colony forming assays (CFA). The ability of both NIG and MEN to eliminate 100% of cancer cells was at least 2-10 times more potent in CFA compared to MTT assays. Our results revealed the existence of a short post-reattachment window of time when cancer cells growing at low density are more sensitive to PLDA of specific drugs likely by targeting clonogenic rather than proliferation pathways. This short ultrasensitive window of time (SUSWoT) was cell- and drug-type specific: the SUSWoT for NIG was present in H460, A549, and MDA-MB-231 cells but not evident in MCF-7 cells. Conversely, a similar SUSWoT for MEN was present in MCF-7, MDA-MD-231, and A549 cells but not evident in H460 cells. Our findings partially explain the decreased incidence of specific types of cancer by PLDA of FDA-approved drugs (or dietary compounds) for noncancer conditions.
RuX: A Novel, Flexible, and Sensitive Mifepristone-Induced Transcriptional Regulation System
Inducible gene regulation methods are indispensable in diverse biological applications, yet many of them have severe limitations in their applicability. These include inducer toxicity, a limited variety of organisms the given system can be used in, and side effects of the induction method. In this study, a novel inducible system, the RuX system, was created using a mutant ligand-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (CS1/CD), used together with various genetic elements such as the Gal4 DNA-binding domain or Cre recombinase. The RuX system is shown to be capable of over 1000-fold inducibility, has flexible applications, and is offered for use in cell cultures.
Assessment of Cytogenotoxicity of Plastic Industrial Effluent Using Allium cepa Root Tip Cells
The effects of plastic effluent in Kano Metropolis on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were examined using a test on Allium cepa root cells. The physicochemical characteristics of industrial wastewater were assessed, and the results showed values that were higher than the required criteria; this implies that the effluent was not treated before to disposal. For 96 hours, a group of 40 onion bulbs was cultivated in various concentrations of plastic effluent: 15, 30, 45, and 60% (). The control was made up of distilled water. Following 96 hours, the four treated root tips from each replication’s bulbs were harvested and subjected to the acetoorcein squash technique for cytogenetic analysis. High concentrations of the industrial effluents had severe development retarding effects on the root tips. Root growth was inhibited with EC50 values of 48% after treatment with the effluents in comparison to control. When Allium cepa was exposed to different quantities of plastic effluent, the results of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the mean root length varied, and this variation was statistically significant (). With rising effluent concentrations, the mitotic index (M.I.) rapidly dropped. Chromosomal abnormalities were caused by the plastic effluent in the root cells of Allium cepa, especially sticky chromosome and binucleated cells being the most frequently seen at lower concentrations of 15%. It was discovered that the compounds found in plastic wastewater could injure live beings as well as harm the environment if not treated. Legal mechanisms must be used to push businesses and manufacturers to switch to environmentally friendly technologies.
The Molecular Basis of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathways in Neurodegenerative Diseases
Defective Wnt signaling is found to be associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. In the canonical pathway, the Frizzled receptor (Fzd) and the lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5/6 (LRP5/LRP6) create a seven-pass transmembrane receptor complex to which the Wnt ligands bind. This interaction causes the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli gene product (APC), casein kinase 1 (CK1), and GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta) to be recruited by the scaffold protein Dishevelled (Dvl), which in turn deactivates the β-catenin destruction complex. This inactivation stops the destruction complex from phosphorylating β-catenin. As a result, β-catenin first builds up in the cytoplasm and then migrates into the nucleus, where it binds to the Lef/Tcf transcription factor to activate the transcription of more than 50 Wnt target genes, including those involved in cell growth, survival, differentiation, neurogenesis, and inflammation. The treatments that are currently available for neurodegenerative illnesses are most commonly not curative in nature but are only symptomatic. According to all available research, restoring Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, would improve the condition of several patients with neurological disorders. The importance of Wnt activators and modulators in patients with such illnesses is to mainly restore rather than overstimulate the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, thereby reestablishing the equilibrium between Wnt-OFF and Wnt-ON states. In this review, we have tried to summarize the significance of the Wnt canonical pathway in the pathophysiology of certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, cerebral ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and other similar diseases, and as to how can it be restored in these patients.
Comparative Transcriptomic Analyses of a Vero Cell Line in Suspension versus Adherent Culture Conditions
The Vero cell line is the most used continuous cell line for viral vaccine manufacturing. Its anchorage-dependent use renders scaling up challenging and operations very labor-intensive which affects cost effectiveness. Thus, efforts to adapt Vero cells to suspension cultures have been invested, but hurdles such as the long doubling time and low cell viability remain to be addressed. In this study, building on the recently published Vero cell line annotated genome, a functional genomics analysis of the Vero cells adapted to suspension is performed to better understand the genetic and phenotypic switches at play during the adaptation of Vero cells from anchorage-dependent to suspension cultures. Results show downregulation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway, highlighting the dissociation between the adaptation to suspension process and EMT. Surprisingly, an upregulation of cell adhesion components is observed, notably the CDH18 gene, the cytoskeleton pathway, and the extracellular pathway. Moreover, a downregulation of the glycolytic pathway is balanced by an upregulation of the asparagine metabolism pathway, promoting cell adaptation to nutrient deprivation. A downregulation of the adherens junctions and the folate pathways alongside with the FYN gene are possible explanations behind the currently observed low-cell viability and long doubling time.
AhR and HIF-1α Signaling Pathways in Benign Meningioma under Hypoxia
The role of hypoxia in benign meningiomas is less clear than that in the malignant meningiomas. Hypoxia-induced transcription factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF-1α) and its downstream signaling pathways play a central role in the mechanism of hypoxia. HIF-1α forms a complex with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein and can compete for ARNT with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In this work, the status of HIF-1α- and AhR-dependent signaling pathways was investigated in World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 meningioma and patient-derived tumor primary cell culture under hypoxic conditions. mRNA levels of HIF-1α, AhR, and of their target genes as well as of ARNT and nuclear receptor coactivator NCOA2 were determined in tumor tissues from patients in whom the tumor was promptly removed either with or without prior endovascular embolization. Using the patient-derived nonembolized tumor primary cell culture, the effects of a hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and an activator of the AhR signaling pathway benzo(α)pyrene (B[a]P) on mRNA levels of HIF-1α, AhR, and their target genes were investigated. Our findings show active functioning of AhR signaling in meningioma tissue of patients with tumor embolization and crosstalk between HIF-1α and AhR signaling in meningeal cells under hypoxia.