Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 172746, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/172746
Research Article

Identification and Characterization of Novel Perivascular Adventitial Cells in the Whole Mount Mesenteric Branch Artery Using Immunofluorescent Staining and Scanning Confocal Microscopy Imaging

1Cardiovascular Disease Research Program, JLC-Biomedical/Biotechnology Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, Durham, NC 27707, USA
2Research Division, Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3Intron Pharmaceuticals, Houston, TX 77005, USA
4Hypertension & Vascular Research Center, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA

Received 26 September 2011; Revised 11 November 2011; Accepted 15 November 2011

Academic Editor: G. S. Stein

Copyright © 2012 Chandra Somasundaram et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Pacilli and G. Pasquinelli, “Vascular wall resident progenitor cells. A review,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 315, no. 6, pp. 901–914, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. E. Zengin, F. Chalajour, U. M. Gehling et al., “Vascular wall resident progenitor cells: a source for postnatal vasculogenesis,” Development, vol. 133, no. 8, pp. 1543–1551, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. W. Chen, E. Montelatici, M. Crisan et al., “Perivascular multi-lineage progenitor cells in human organs: regenerative units, cytokine sources or both?” Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 429–434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Corselli, C. W. Chen, M. Crisan, L. Lazzari, and B. Péault, “Perivascular ancestors of adult multipotent stem cells,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1104–1109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Crisan, C. W. Chen, M. Corselli, G. Andriolo, L. Lazzari, and B. Péault, “Perivascular multipotent progenitor cells in human organs,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1176, pp. 118–123, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Crisan, B. Deasy, M. Gavina et al., “Purification and long-term culture of multipotent progenitor cells affiliated with the walls of human blood vessels: myoendothelial cells and pericytes,” Methods in Cell Biology, vol. 86, pp. 295–309, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Crisan, J. Huard, B. Zheng et al., “Purification and culture of human blood vessel-associated progenitor cells,” Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology, chapter 2, pp. 2B.2.1–2B.2.13, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Crisan, S. Yap, L. Casteilla et al., “A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 301–313, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. Klein, H. P. Hohn, V. Kleff, D. Tilki, and S. Ergün, “Vascular wall-resident stem cells,” Histology and Histopathology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 681–689, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Tavian, B. Zheng, E. Oberlin et al., “The vascular wall as a source of stem cells,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1044, pp. 41–50, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Somasundaram, D. I. Diz, T. Coleman, and R. D. Bukoski, “Adventitial neuronal somata,” Journal of Vascular Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 278–288, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. van der Loo and J. F. Martin, “The adventitia, endothelium and atherosclerosis,” International Journal of Microcirculation-Clinical and Experimental, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 280–288, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. M. Arribas, C. J. Daly, M. C. González, and J. C. Mcgrath, “Imaging the vascular wall using confocal microscopy,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 584, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Warwick, DB: Gray's Anatomy, Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 37th edition, 1989.
  15. E. Harno, G. Edwards, A. R. Geraghty et al., “Evidence for the presence of GPRC6A receptors in rat mesenteric arteries,” Cell Calcium, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 210–219, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Smajilovic, J. L. Hansen, T. E. H. Christoffersen et al., “Extracellular calcium sensing in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 348, no. 4, pp. 1215–1223, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Wang, E. K. Awumey, P. K. Chatterjee et al., “Molecular cloning and characterization of a rat sensory nerve Ca2+-sensing receptor,” American Journal of Physiology—Cell Physiology, vol. 285, no. 1, pp. C64–C75, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. R. D. Bukoski, K. Bian, Y. Wang, and M. Mupanomunda, “Perivascular sensory nerve Ca2+ receptor and Ca2+-induced relaxation of isolated arteries,” Hypertension, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1431–1439, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. H. Weston, A. Geraghty, I. Egner, and G. Edwards, “The vascular extracellular calcium-sensing receptor: an update,” Acta Physiologica, vol. 203, no. 1, pp. 127–137, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Ruat, M. E. Molliver, A. M. Snowman, and S. H. Snyder, “Calcium sensing receptor: molecular cloning in rat and localization to nerve terminals,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 3161–3165, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Mechsner, J. Schwarz, J. Thode, C. Loddenkemper, D. S. Salomon, and A. D. Ebert, “Growth-associated protein 43-positive sensory nerve fibers accompanied by immature vessels are located in or near peritoneal endometriotic lesions,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 581–587, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Shen, S. Mani, S. L. Donovan, J. E. Schwob, and K. F. Meiri, “Growth-associated protein-43 is required for commissural axon guidance in the developing vertebrate nervous system,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 239–247, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Q. He, E. W. Dent, and K. F. Meiri, “Modulation of actin filament behavior by GAP-43 (neuromodulin) is dependent on the phosphorylation status of serine 41, the protein kinase C site,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 3515–3524, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. M. Goicoechea, D. Arneman, and C. A. Otey, “The role of palladin in actin organization and cell motility,” European Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 87, no. 8-9, pp. 517–525, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. Jin, Q. Gan, B. J. Zieba et al., “The actin associated protein palladin is important for the early smooth muscle cell differentiation,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 9, Article ID e12823, pp. 1–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. J. Rönty, S. K. Leivonen, B. Hinz et al., “Isoform-specific regulation of the actin-organizing protein palladin during TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 126, no. 11, pp. 2387–2396, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. P. A. Vo and D. R. Tomlinson, “Effects of nerve growth factor on expression of GAP-43 in right atria after sympathectomy in diabetic rats,” Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 350–359, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Y. Tsai, L. Y. Yang, C. H. Wu et al., “Injury-induced Janus kinase/protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of growth-associated protein 43 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 for neurite growth in dorsal root ganglion,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 321–331, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. C. C. Toth, D. Willis, J. L. Twiss et al., “Locally synthesized calcitonin gene-related peptide has a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 326–337, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. M. Parast and C. A. Otey, “Characterization of palladin, a novel protein localized to stress fibers and cell adhesions,” Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 643–655, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. H. Weston, M. Absi, D. T. Ward et al., “Evidence in favor of a calcium-sensing receptor in arterial endothelial cells: studies with calindol and Calhex 231,” Circulation Research, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 391–398, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus