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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 379685, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/379685
Review Article

Nongenomic Mechanisms of PTEN Regulation

1Department of Biology, College of Staten Island, 2800 Victory Boulevard, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA
2Biology Doctoral Program, City University of New York Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
3Biochemistry Doctoral Program, City University of New York Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
4BIOARRAY Therapeutics Inc., Venture Development Center, UMASS, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125, USA

Received 2 November 2011; Revised 16 January 2012; Accepted 17 January 2012

Academic Editor: Andre Van Wijnen

Copyright © 2012 Jimmie E. Fata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A large amount of data supports the view that PTEN is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene. However, recent evidence suggests that derailment of cellular localization and expression levels of functional nonmutated PTEN is a determining force in inducing abnormal cellular and tissue outcomes. As the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal PTEN enzymatic activity resolve, it is evident that deregulation of these mechanisms can alter cellular processes and tissue architecture and ultimately lead to oncogenic transformation. Here we discuss PTEN ubiquitination, PTEN complex formation with components of the adherens junction, PTEN nuclear localization, and microRNA regulation of PTEN as essential regulatory mechanisms that determine PTEN function independent of gene mutations and epigenetic events.