Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 135908, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/135908
Research Article

Lithium Improves Survival of PC12 Pheochromocytoma Cells in High-Density Cultures and after Exposure to Toxic Compounds

1Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Sapienza University, Via A. Borelli 50, 00161 Rome, Italy
2Department of Science, Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy
3Department of Human Morphology and Applied Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
4I.R.C.C.S. Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy

Received 11 October 2013; Accepted 20 November 2013; Published 20 January 2014

Academic Editor: Claudia Giampietri

Copyright © 2014 Cinzia Fabrizi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Jimenez, E. Rohren, M. A. Habra, T. Rich, P. Jimenez, and M. Ayala-Ramirez E, “Baudin, current and future treatments for malignant pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma,” Current Oncology Report, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 356–371, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  2. A. Kappes, A. Vaccaro, M. Kunnimalaiyaan, and H. Chen, “Lithium ions: a novel treatment for pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas,” Surgery, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 161–165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. E. Severus, N. Kleindienst, F. Seemüller, S. Frangou, H. J. Möller, and W. Greil, “What is the optimal serum lithium level in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder—a review?” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 231–237, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Sarkar and D. C. Rubinsztein, “Inositol and IP3 levels regulate autophagy: biology and therapeutic speculations,” Autophagy, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 132–134, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Lee, S. Giordano, and J. Zhang, “Autophagy, mitochondria and oxidative stress: cross-talk and redox signalling,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 441, no. 2, pp. 523–540, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. K. Rowe, C. Wiest, and D.-M. Chuang, “GSK-3 is a viable potential target for therapeutic intervention in bipolar disorder,” Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 920–931, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. O. Kaidanovich-Beilin and J. R. Woodgett, “GSK-3: functional insights from cell biology and animal models,” Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, vol. 4, article 40, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Catizone, G. Ricci, and M. Galdieri, “Hepatocyte growth factor modulates Sertoli-Sertoli tight junction dynamics,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 253–260, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Z. Lu and D. D. Harrison-Findik, “Autophagy and cancer,” World Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 64–70, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  10. C. Liang and J. U. Jung, “Autophagy genes as tumor suppressors,” Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 226–233, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. C. Kimmelman, “The dynamic nature of autophagy in cancer,” Genes and Development, vol. 25, no. 19, pp. 1999–2010, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Scherz-Shouval and Z. Elazar, “Regulation of autophagy by ROS: physiology and pathology,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 30–38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Nassir Ghaemi, D. J. Hsu, F. Soldani, and F. K. Goodwin, “Antidepressants in bipolar disorder: the case for caution,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 421–433, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. O. Thastrup, P. J. Cullen, B. K. Drobak, M. R. Hanley, and A. P. Dawson, “Thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, discharges intracellular Ca2+ stores by specific inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 2466–2470, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Hiroi, H. Wei, C. Hough, P. Leeds, and D.-M. Chuang, “Protracted lithium treatment protects against the ER stress elicited by thapsigargin in rat PC12 cells: roles of intracellular calcium, GRP78 and Bcl-2,” Pharmacogenomics Journal, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 102–111, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. Misiti, F. Orsini, M. E. Clementi, W. Lattanzi, B. Giardina, and F. Michetti, “Mitochondrial oxygen consumption inhibition importance for TMT-dependent cell death in undifferentiated PC12 cells,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1092–1099, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. L. Billingsley, J. Yun, B. E. Reese, C. E. Davidson, B. A. Buck-Koehntop, and G. Veglia, “Functional and structural properties of stannin: roles in cellular growth, selective toxicity, and mitochondrial responses to injury,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 243–250, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Fabrizi, F. Somma, E. Pompili et al., “Role of autophagy inhibitors and inducers in modulating the toxicity of trimethyltin in neuronal cell cultures,” Journal of Neural Transmission, pp. 1–11, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Sahebgharani, M. Nejati, Z. Sepehrizadeh et al., “Lithium chloride protects PC12 pheochromocytoma cell line from morphine-induced apoptosis,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 639–648, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. B. N. Frey, A. C. Andreazza, K. M. M. Ceresér et al., “Effects of mood stabilizers on hippocampus BDNF levels in an animal model of mania,” Life Sciences, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 281–286, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. C. Walz, B. N. Frey, A. C. Andreazza et al., “Effects of lithium and valproate on serum and hippocampal neurotrophin-3 levels in an animal model of mania,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 416–421, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus