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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2014, Article ID 236246, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/236246
Review Article

Emerging Lung Cancer Therapeutic Targets Based on the Pathogenesis of Bone Metastases

1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA
2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Louis Stokes Veteran Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272, USA

Received 21 April 2014; Revised 31 July 2014; Accepted 1 August 2014; Published 14 August 2014

Academic Editor: Rony Seger

Copyright © 2014 Moses O. Oyewumi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer related mortality in both men and women. Each year, more people die of lung cancer than of colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined. It is widely accepted that tumor metastasis is a formidable barrier to effective treatment of lung cancer. The bone is one of the frequent metastatic sites for lung cancer occurring in a large number of patients. Bone metastases can cause a wide range of symptoms that could impair quality of life of lung cancer patients and shorten their survival. We strongly believe that molecular targets (tumor-related and bone microenvironment based) that have been implicated in lung cancer bone metastases hold great promise in lung cancer therapeutics. Thus, this paper discusses some of the emerging molecular targets that have provided insights into the cascade of metastases in lung cancer with the focus on bone invasion. It is anticipated that the information gathered might be useful in future efforts of optimizing lung cancer treatment strategies.