Chronic Diseases Multimorbidity among Adult People Living with HIV at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Southern EthiopiaRead the full article
International Journal of Chronic Diseases publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of chronic diseases.
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Assessment of Quality of Life of Epileptic Patients in Ethiopia
Background. Patients with epilepsy are at an increased risk of poor quality of life. Purpose. We aimed at assessing the quality of life and its determinants among epileptic patients at University of Gondar Referral Hospital (UoGRH), Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted on epileptic patients on follow up at UoGRH from January 15 to April 15, 2017. Information including socio-demographic profile and diagnosis was extracted from medical records and patients. Quality Of Life In Epilepsy-10 (QOLIE-10) tool was used to measure the quality of life. Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to look for factors associated with quality of life. The level of statistical significance was declared at -value ≤ 0.05. Results. A total of 354 patients were included in the study and mean age was 29.1 ± 11.7 years. The mean QOLIE-10 score was 19.85. One hundred ninety-four (54.8%) of participants had a good quality of life. Being illiterate, unemployment, and presence of co-morbid medical condition were associated with poorer quality of life. Conclusion. Nearly half of the participants had a poor quality of life. Patients with co-morbidity, illiteracy, and unemployment should be given special emphasis in order to improve their quality of life.
Comparative Abilities of Fasting Plasma Glucose and Haemoglobin A1c in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome among Apparently Healthy Normoglycemic Ghanaian Adults
There are arguments as to whether haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) better predicts Metabolic syndrome (MetS) than fasting plasma glucose. The aim of the study was to explore the comparative abilities of HbA1c and Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in predicting cardiometabolic risk among apparently healthy adults in the Tamale metropolis. This study was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Tamale metropolis from September, 2017, to January, 2018, among one hundred and sixty (160) apparently healthy normoglycemic adults. A self-designed questionnaire was administered to gather sociodemographic data. Anthropometric and haemodynamic data were also taken and blood samples collected for haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and lipid profile. MetS was classified using the harmonised criteria as indicated in the joint interim statement (JIS). Out of the 160 participants, 42.5% were males and 57.5% were females. FPG associated better with MetS and other cardiovascular risk markers, compared to HbA1c. FPG had the largest area under curve for predicting MetS and its components. This study shows a stronger association between FPG and MetS compared with haemoglobin A1c; it also provides evidence of a superior ability of FPG over HbA1c in predicting MetS and other adverse cardiovascular outcomes in apparently heathy normoglycemic individuals.
Variables Associated with a Urinary MicroRNAs Excretion Profile Indicative of Renal Fibrosis in Fabry Disease Patients
Introduction. In advanced Fabry nephropathy stages, enzyme replacement theraphy (ERT) efficacy decreases, due to its impossibility to reverse renal fibrosis. Therefore, the finding of early kidney fibrosis biomarkers in affected patients is of interest. During renal fibrosis miR-21, miR-192 and miR-433 (fibrosis promotors) are activated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and miR-29 and miR-200 family (fibrosis supressors) are inhibited by TGF-β. The aim of this study is to analyze the probability that Fabry disease (FD) patients with some clinical variables can present an urinary microRNAs excretion profile indicative of renal fibrosis through a logistic regression analysis. Results. A population of 34 participants was included: 24 FD patients and 10 controls. 16/24 (66.66%) FD patients presented microRNAs urinary excretion profile indicative of renal fibrosis. This profile was observed by decrease of fibrosis suppresors miR-29 and miR-200 and not by increase of fibrosis promotors miR-21, miR192, and miR-433. Hypohidrosis, angiokeratomas, neuropathic pain, hearing loss, cardiac involvement, male gender, reduced αGalA activity, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors treatment are associated with the appearance of amicroRNAs urinary excretion profile indicative of renal fibrosis. A probable beneficial effect on urinary microRNAs excretion profile was observed in patients receiving ERT with agalsidase beta. The correlation between parameters of renal function with each family of microRNAs was studied. The only association with statistical significance was found between miR-21 and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (p =0.021). Conclusions. A probable microRNAs regulation not mediated by TGF-β should be considered or TGF-β has a different effect in FD than in other nephropathies on microRNAs regulation. Typical clinical manifestations of classic FD are associated with appearance of urinary microRNAs profile indicative of renal fibrosis. FD patients express renal fibrosis biomarkers in urine prior to onset of pathological albuminuria. A direct correlation between urinary miR-21 and degree of albuminuria was observed.
Usefulness of qSOFA and ECOG Scores for Predicting Hospital Mortality in Postsurgical Cancer Patients without Infection
Background. The quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group (ECOG) scale are simple and easy parameters to measure because they do not require laboratory tests. The objective of this study was to compare the discriminatory capacity of the qSOFA and ECOG to predict hospital mortality in postsurgical cancer patients without infection. Methods. During the period 2013–2017, we prospectively collected data of all patients without infection who were admitted to the ICU during the postoperative period, except those who stayed in the ICU for <24 hours or patients under 18 years. The ECOG score during the last month before hospitalization and the qSOFA performed during the first hour after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) were collected. The primary outcome for this study was the in-hospital mortality rate. Results. A total of 315 patients were included. The ICU and hospital mortality rates were 6% and 9.2%, respectively. No difference was observed between the qSOFA [AUC=0.75 (95% CI = 0.69-0.79)] and the ECOG scores [AUC=0.68 (95%CI =0.62-0.73)] (p=0.221) for predicting in-hospital mortality. qSOFA greater than 1 predicted in-hospital mortality with a high sensitivity (100%) but low specificity (38.8%); positive predictive value of 26.3% and negative predictive value of 93.1% compared to 74.4% of specificity, 55.1% of sensitivity%; positive predictive value of 18% and negative predictive value of 94.2% for an ECOG score greater than 1. Multivariable Cox regression analysis identified two independent predicting factors of in-hospital mortality, which included ECOG score during the last month before hospitalization (HR: 1.46; 95 % CI: 1.06-2.00); qSOFA calculated in the first hours after ICU admission (OR: 3.17; 95 % CI: 1.79–5.63). Conclusion. No difference was observed between the qSOFA and ECOG for predicting in-hospital mortality. The qSOFA score performed during the first hour after admission to the ICU and ECOG scale during the last month before hospitalization were associated with in-hospital mortality in postsurgical cancer patients without infection. The qSOFA and ECOG score have a potential to be included as early warning tools for hospitalized postsurgical cancer patients without infection.
Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus among Patients at Hawassa University Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia
Background. The burden of noncommunicable disease (NCD) in Africa is on a remarkable rise exacerbating the poor public health status affected by the existing but yet unsolved communicable disease. In Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence regarding prevalence and risk factors to NCD. Objective. This study sought to determine the prevalence of risk factors of NCDs, prevalence of DM and HTN, and risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN). Method. This is an institution based cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 411 clients attending a university-based comprehensive specialized hospital in Southern Ethiopia. The data was collected by using a pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire and observational checklist. Frequency, proportions, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted using SPSS software version 20. Result. We identified 64.2% of the clients had at least one of the risk factors to the NCDs. One-third (33.3%) had physical inactivity, whereas 20.2% had a BMI of ≥ 25%. The prevalence of DM and HTN was 12.2% and 10.5%, respectively. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥ 60 years, physical inactivity, higher BMI, and cigarette smoking were risk factors for at least one of the NCDs. Conclusion. The prevalence of DM and prevalence of HTN were high. The magnitudes of risk factors to NCDs among the study population were substantial. Higher BMI, physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol use, khat chewing, and cigarette smoking were among the prevailing risk factors identified.
Association of CCL2, CCR5, ELMO1, and IL8 Polymorphism with Diabetic Nephropathy in Malaysian Type 2 Diabetic Patients
The unique variants or biomarkers of individuals help to understand the pathogenesis as well as the potential risk of individuals or patients to diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (CCL2-rs3917887), chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5-rs1799987), engulfment and cell mortality (ELMO1-rs74130), and interleukin-8 (IL8-rs4073) with the development of DN among Malaysian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. More than one thousand diabetic patients were examined and a total of 652 T2DM patients were tested comprising 227 Malays (nonnephrotic=96 and nephrotic=131), 203 Chinese (nonnephrotic=95 and nephrotic=108), and 222 Indians (nonnephrotic=136 and nephrotic=86). DNA Sequenom mass ARRAY was employed to identify polymorphisms in CCL2, CCR5, ELMO1, and IL8 genes. DNA was extracted from the secondary blood samples taken from the T2DM patients. The alleles and genotypes were tested using four genetic models and the best mode of inheritance was chosen. CCR5 rs1799987 (G>A) showed strong association with the development of diabetic nephropathy only among the Chinese with OR=6.71 (2.55-17.68) 95% CI while IL8 rs4073 (T>A) showed association with nephropathy only among the Indians with OR=1.57 (0.66-3.71) 95% CI. The additive model was the best model for the mode of inheritance of all the genes. The contribution of genetic variants differs across ethnic groups or background. Further studies which involve environmental risk factors should be taken into consideration.