Haematological Features and Urologic Pathologies of Diabetic Subjects at Bafoussam Regional Hospital: A Cross-Sectional StudyRead the full article
International Journal of Chronic Diseases publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of chronic diseases.
International Journal of Chronic Diseases maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Pulmonary Complications Secondary to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Background. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have changed the landscape in the treatment of a number of cancers. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have emerged as a serious clinical problem with the use of ICI. Methods. All oncology patients diagnosed with pulmonary complications secondary to ICI at Mayo Clinic Rochester from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2018 were reviewed. Demographics, comorbidities, smoking, and oncologic history were analyzed. Results. A total of 10 patients developed pulmonary complications secondary to ICI. Seven patients were men (70%), and the median age at diagnosis was 61.5 (IQR 55.8-69.3) years. All patients had stage IV disease. Melanoma was the most common malignancy. Seven (70%) patients had a positive smoking history, and 6 (60%) were obese (). Most cases were grade 2 pneumonitis (70%). One patient with grade 4 pneumonitis required endotracheal intubation and a prolonged course of systemic corticosteroids (>30 days). Eight (80%) patients received prior radiation therapy. The median time from initiation of ICI to pneumonitis diagnosis was 3.5 months. Conclusion. Melanoma was the most common malignancy, the majority of patients had grade 2 pneumonitis and required treatment with steroids, and all patients affected by ICI-related pneumonitis had stage IV malignancy. Potential risk factors included smoking history, prior radiotherapy, obesity, and advance stage at the time of ICI initiation. Extrapulmonary irAEs are common in patients with pneumonitis.
The Prevalence and Associated Factors of Hypertension among Adults in Southern Ethiopia
Background. Hypertension is a growing public health problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. Determining the prevalence of hypertension and identifying the associated factors is crucial. Objective. To assess the prevalence of hypertension and associated factors, among adult population of Arba Minch town, Gamo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was conducted from December 1 to 30, 2017 among adults. Study participants were selected using a multistage systematic sampling method. Data were collected by face-to-face interview after getting written informed consent by using a structured questionnaire. Additionally, weight, height, and blood pressure of participants were measured following standard procedures. Data were entered into a computer using EPI INFO 7 and exported into SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to explore the association between hypertension and associated factors. Multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to control the effect of confounders. Results. A total of 784 study participants were included in this study. The overall prevalence of hypertension in Arba Minch Town was 35.2%, (95% CI: 32.4%, 38.4%). Nearly 90% of hypertensive patients were screened for the first time. Age ≥55 years [; 95% CI: 2.19, 27.23], income level which is greater than 2501 Ethiopian Birr [; 95% CI: 4.5, 20.20], working hour less than seven hours per day [; 95% CI: 4.3, 36.1], and chewing “khat” [: 95% CI: 4.3, 27.7] were the independently associated factors with hypertension. Conclusion. The prevalence of hypertension is found to be high. Increasing awareness on control use of “khat,” increasing physical activity, and strengthening community-based periodic screening programs of high-risk populations are recommended.
Referral of Patients with Nonmalignant Chronic Diseases to Specialist Palliative Care: A Study in a Teaching Hospital in Ghana
Ghana’s chronic disease burden is on the rise. An essential aspect of clinical care in chronic disease management is to improve the quality of life of both patients and their families and to help them cope with the experience of life-limiting illness. Specialist palliative care services help reach this objective, especially in the context of complex psychosocial challenges and high symptom burden. It is, therefore, necessary that as many patients as possible get access to available specialist palliative care services. This paper explores the factors influencing referral of patients with nonmalignant chronic diseases for specialist palliative care. A qualitative approach was used to explore these factors from eight (8) participants—four (4) physician specialists and four (4) next of kin of patients with advanced nonmalignant chronic illness. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted using a semistructured interview guide. Interviews were audio-recorded and data coded, themes and subthemes were identified, and thematic analysis was done. Barriers and motivators identified were categorized as either related to physicians, institution, or family. Barriers to referral were perception of the scope of palliative care, medical paternalism, lack of an institutional referral policy, poor human resource capacity of the palliative care team, and lack of awareness about the existence of specialist palliative care service. Poor economic status of the patient and family, poor prognosis, previous interaction with the palliative care team, and an appreciation of patients’ expectations of the healthcare system were identified as motivators for referral. The palliative care team must therefore increase awareness among other health professionals about their services and facilitate the development and availability of a clear policy to guide and improve referrals.
Health Conditions, Access to Care, Mental Health, and Wellness Behaviors in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Adults
This study examined relationships among wellness behaviors, physical health conditions, mental health, health insurance, and access to care among a sample of 317 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults. Participants completed a web-administered survey from May 2013 to April 2014. Of the sample, 41.6% of the participants reported having one or more health conditions. Most participants (92.1%) reported access to a health care facility and current health insurance coverage (84.9%), though 24.9% of those with health insurance reported being incapable of paying the copayments. Physical health conditions, age, and self-esteem explained 24% of the variance in engagement in wellness behaviors; older age, a greater number of health conditions, higher self-esteem, possession of health insurance, and ability to access to care were associated with increased wellness behaviors. Providing affordable insurance coverage, improving access to care, and properly treating mental health in LGBT individuals could improve wellness behaviors.
The Burden of Noncommunicable Diseases in Ethiopia, 2000–2016: Analysis of Evidence from Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 and Global Health Estimates 2016
Background. The continuing rise in the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is a key global health agendum due to the fact that NCDs cause more deaths than all other causes combined together. Although measuring the burden of NCD is very important to improve the existing health care systems and to monitor the progress of the program, a comprehensive estimate is lacking in Ethiopia. Hence, we aimed to systematically analyze the existing evidence to bring a solution. Methods. The research used data from the Global Burden of Disease Study (GBD 2016) and Global Health Estimates 2016 that originally collected the information through vital registration, verbal autopsy, surveys, reports, and modeling. Results. In 2016, NCD caused an estimated 274998.8 (95% CI: 211290.2–362882.1) deaths among all ages and both genders with a crude death rate of 268.5/100000 and age-standardized death rate (ASDR) of 554.7/100000 population. It contributed to 39.3% of the total death, 53% of ASDR, and 34% of DALYs. The number of deaths and DALYs from NCD has increased by 38% and 31.5%, respectively, whereas CDR and ASDR from NCD have declined by 10.3% and 12.5%, respectively. Cardiovascular diseases, malignant neoplasms, digestive diseases, respiratory diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neurological conditions were the leading level 2 causes of ASDR due to NCD, while ischemic heart disease, stroke, other circulatory diseases, cirrhosis of the liver, and COPD were the top 5 causes of ASDR from NCD at level 3 causes. Conclusion and Recommendation. The burden of NCD was remarkably increased between 2000 and 2016. It carries the highest burden of ASDR. Cardiovascular diseases and malignant neoplasms were the two most common causes of mortality and DALYs. Therefore, the existing disease prevention strategies should be strengthened by incorporating strategies addressing noncommunicable diseases.
Conceptualization of Heterogeneity of Chronic Diseases and Atherosclerosis as a Pathway to Precision Medicine: Endophenotype, Endotype, and Residual Cardiovascular Risk
The article discusses modern approaches to the conceptualization of pathogenetic heterogeneity in various branches of medical science. The concepts of endophenotype, endotype, and residual cardiovascular risk and the scope of their application in internal medicine and cardiology are considered. Based on the latest results of studies of the genetic architecture of atherosclerosis, five endotypes of atherosclerosis have been proposed. Each of the presented endotypes represents one or another pathophysiological mechanism of atherogenesis, having an established genetic substrate, a characteristic panel of biomarkers, and a number of clinical features. Clinical implications and perspectives for the study of endotypes of atherosclerosis are briefly reviewed.