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International Journal of Chronic Diseases
Volume 2013, Article ID 578613, 15 pages
Review Article

Biomarkers in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Serum of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

1Inflammation and Infection Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia
2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, Sydney, NSW 2031, Australia

Received 22 April 2013; Accepted 8 July 2013

Academic Editor: Jin-Yuan Shih

Copyright © 2013 Mann Ying Lim and Paul S. Thomas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are leading causes of deaths worldwide which are associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Lung cancer, in particular, has a very high mortality rate due to the characteristically late diagnosis. As such, identification of novel biomarkers which allow for early diagnosis of these diseases could improve outcome and survival rate. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) are examples of potential diagnostic markers for both COPD and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). They may even be useful in monitoring treatment response. In the serum, S100A8, S100A9, and S100A12 of the S100 proteins are proinflammatory markers. They have been indicated in several inflammatory diseases and cancers including secondary metastasis into the lung. It is highly likely that they not only have the potential to be diagnostic biomarkers for NSCLC but also prognostic indicators and therapeutic targets.