International Journal of Chronic Diseases / 2014 / Article / Tab 4

Research Article

The Lived Experience of Lupus Flares: Features, Triggers, and Management in an Australian Female Cohort

Table 4

Flare group reported trigger-symptom cross-link matrix.

Flare group
Trigger number (%)
Symptom number (%)

Stress 51 (57)Pain*
42 (82)
Fatigue 
42 (82)
Rash 
18 (35)
H. ache*
15 (29)
Ab/GI*
12 (24)
Fever
9 (18)
Swelling
9 (18)
UV*
9 (18)
Br. fog*
9 (18)
Chest*
7 (14)

Doing too much/run down 39 (44)Pain  
32 (82)
Fatigue 
32 (82)
Rash  
11 (28)
H. ache
10 (26)
Fever
10 (26)
Br. fog
7 (18)
Swelling
6 (15)
RP*
4 (10)
UV
4 (10)
Ab/GI
2 (5)

Sunlight exposure 33 (37)Pain  
28 (85)
Fatigue 
27 (82)
Rash  
15 (46)
Swelling
12 (36)
H. ache
10 (30)
MusW*
5 (15)
RP
4 (12)
UV
4 (12)
Br. fog
3 (9)
Ulcers
3 (9)

Weather/temperature changes 20 (22)Fatigue 
15 (75)
Pain 
12 (60)
Rash 
6 (30)
Fever
6 (30)
RP
5 (25)
SOB*
4 (20)
H. ache
3 (15)
Inf.*
3 (15)
Chest
3 (15)
Skin*
3 (15)

Overheating 18 (20)Fatigue 
14 (78)
Pain 
12 (67)
Rash 
7 (39)
SOB
5 (28)
H. ache
4 (22)
Br. fog
4 (22)
Swelling
4 (22)
Ab/GI
3 (17)
Skin, sleep*, fever, ulcers, vision* 2 (11)

Infection 14 (14)Pain 
12 (86)
Fatigue 
12 (86)
Swelling 
5 (36)
Br. fog
4 (29)
H. ache
4 (29)
MusW
4 (29)
RP
3 (21)
Inf.
3 (21)
SOB, Ab/GI, ulcers, alopecia, vision 2 (14)

Lack of sleep/insomnia 13 (15)Fatigue  
13 (100)
Pain 
11 (85)
H. ache 
6 (46)
Rash 
5 (38)
Fever
5 (38)
Swelling
3 (23)
Br. fog
3 (23)
Ab/GI
3 (23)
Chest
3 (23)
Neuralgia*
3 (23)

Cold temperatures 10 (11)Fatigue 
9 (90)
Pain 
6 (60)
RP 
5 (50)
Fever 
3 (30)
Dizziness 
3 (30)
Rash, inf., chest, mood, MusW 2 (20)

Work 7 (8)Pain 
5 (71)
Fatigue 
5 (71)
Rash 
5 (71)
UV 
4 (57)
Br. fog, H. ache, Ab/GI,  dryness, RP 2 (29)

Being upset 8 (9)Pain 
8 (100)
Fatigue 
7 (88)
Throat 
3 (38)
SOB, fever, chest 2 (25)

Strong chemical exposure 8 (9)Pain 
6 (75)
Fatigue 
6 (75)
Rash 
4 (50)
H. ache 
3 (38)
Swelling 
3 (38)
Dryness 
3 (38)
SOB, skin  2 (25)

Change in medicines 6 (67)Pain 
5 (83)
Fatigue, sleep, rash, fever 2 (33)

Fluorescent light exposure 6 (67)Pain 
4 (66)
Fatigue 
4 (66)
H. ache 
3 (50)
Swelling 
3 (50)
Rash
3 (50)
UV 
3 (50)
Dryness, ulcer,  Br. fog 2 (33)

Foods (spicy, bread) 5 (56)Pain 
5 (100)
Fatigue 
4 (80)
Ab/GI 
3 (60)
H. ache, swelling 2 (40)

Hormonal periods 5 (56)Pain 
5 (100)
H. ache 
3 (60)
Skin 
3 (60)
Fatigue, rash, Ab/GI 2 (40)

Pain: joint and muscle pain, H. ache: headache, Ab/GI: abdominal/GI symptoms, Br. fog: brain fog/cognitive clouding, chest: chest pain, UV: UV sensitivity, RP: Raynaud’s phenomenon, MusW: muscle weakness, SOB: shortness of breath, Inf.: infection, skin: skin changes, sleep: sleep disturbance, vision: vision changes, and neuralgia: feeling of ant’s crawling, pins, and needles.

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