International Journal of Chronic Diseases / 2016 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

COPD in a Population-Based Sample of Never-Smokers: Interactions among Sex, Gender, and Race

Table 2

Logistic regression of COPD by sex/gender and race in a sample of never-smoking Americans over the age of 50 ()1.

Model 1
OR (99% CI)
Model 2
Model 1 + height
OR (99% CI)
Model 3
Model 1 + SEP
OR (99% CI)
Model 4
Fully adjusted
OR (99% CI)

Sex/gender, and race
 White men (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 Black men0.89
(0.70, 1.13)
0.88
(0.69, 1.11)
0.62
(0.49, 0.79)
0.62
(0.49, 0.79)
 Black women
(2.22, 2.84)

(1.87, 2.49)
1.66
(1.46, 1.88)
1.55
(1.34, 1.80)
 White women
(1.56, 1.86)

(1.29, 1.63)
1.49
(1.37, 1.63)
1.41
(1.25, 1.59)

Age by decade
 50s (Ref.)1.001.001.001.00
 60s1.55
(1.42, 1.70)
1.53
(1.40, 1.68)
1.37
(1.25, 1.50)
1.39
(1.27, 1.53)
 70s1.95
(1.77, 2.15)
1.91
(1.73, 2.10)
1.43
(1.29, 1.58)
1.45
(1.30, 1.62)
 80s2.11
(1.88, 2.36)
2.03
(1.81, 2.27)
1.40
(1.24, 1.57)
1.42
(1.25, 1.61)
 90s2.15
(1.66, 2.78)
2.03
(1.56, 2.63)
1.37
(1.05, 1.78)
1.38
(1.05, 1.81)

Height0.97
(0.96, 0.99)
0.99
(0.99, 1.00)

Socioeconomic position
 Education
  Did not graduate high school1.70
(1.49, 1.93)
1.67
(1.47, 1.91)
  Graduated high school1.19
(1.08, 1.34)
1.19
(1.07, 1.32)
  Attended college or technical school1.30
(1.17, 1.44)
1.29
(1.16, 1.44)
  College or technical school graduate1.001.00
 Household income
  $75,000 or more (Ref.)1.001.00
  $50,000 to less than $75,0001.46
(1.25, 1.70)
1.48
(1.27, 1.72)
  $25,000–$49,9992.50
(2.20, 2.84)
2.53
(2.22, 2.88)
  $15,000–$24,9992.92
(2.54, 3.35)
2.97
(2.57, 3.43)
  <$15,0004.24
(3.64, 4.92)
4.34
(3.71, 5.08)
  Missing1.97
(1.71, 2.27)
1.99
(1.73, 2.30)

Controls
 Marital status
  Married at least once1.00
  Never married1.01
(0.88, 1.16)
 Number of adults/households
  11.00
  20.98
(0.89, 1.08)
  ≥31.21
(1.08, 1.36)
  Missing1.02
(0.90, 1.16)
Health plan
 Yes (Ref.)1.00
 No0.94
(0.81, 1.08)

Nagelkerke square value0.0260.0270.0570.057
2 log likelihood45940.045912.344716.744683.27

1Sample sizes are presented in their unweighted form. Odds ratios, values, and confidence intervals are weighted to adjust for the probability of selection and nonresponse.
is statistically significant at .
OR, Odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; SEP, socioeconomic position.
Source: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012.

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