Article of the Year 2021
Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Lanthanum Silicate Apatites La10Si6−x−0.2AlxZn0.2O27−δ for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs)Read the full article
International Journal of Chemical Engineering publishes research focused on technologies for the production, processing, transportation and use of chemicals on an industrial scale.
Chief Editor, Evangelos Tsotsas, holds the Chair of Thermal Process Engineering at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg (Germany) since 1994. The main focus of his work is on drying, and on particle formulation processes related to drying, such as spray fluidized bed agglomeration.
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Performance and Emission Analysis of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel Mixed with Titanium Oxide Nano-Additives
People are using biodiesel in compression ignition engines because it is more environmentally friendly and can be used as a good alternative to diesel. There is a new technology called nanoparticles that can change the way a fuel works. Because waste cooking has a lot of oil in it, it can make biodiesel. To make biodiesel, transesterification was used to turn nonedible oil from waste cooking oil into biodiesel that could be used. Nanoparticles made of titanium oxide were studied by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis, among other things. TiO2 nanoparticles are spread out in different amounts in the biodiesel blend. The dosage levels range from 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm. Tests on how titanium nanoparticles in a waste cooking oil biodiesel blend affect a diesel engine’s performance and how it emits were conducted in this study too. At a steady speed, the engine was used when there was a lot of work to do. Tests show that the WCOME 20 TiO2 100 ppm blend worked well. With the increase in the concentration of nanoparticles, there is an increase in brake thermal efficiency and at the same time, there is a decrease in BSFC. It is also less harmful to the environment than other blends, except for NOx, which does no’t change.
Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Hybridized Natural Fiber Reinforced Penta-Layered Hybrid Polymer Composite
This article investigates and presents the upshots observed in the brook of hybrid composites especially, the current investigation focuses on the impact of fiber composition, sequence, and stacking pattern on composite mechanical Features. Five varied stacking sequences of hybrid composites encompassing laminates are used to create four classes of fiber with jute/bamboo/glass by utilizing a conscientious hand lay-up process with glass fiber-laced mats as their peripheral layer. For examination, fiber sequences are arranged in the combination of GJBJG, GBJBG, GJGJG, and GBGBG, where G, J, and B refer to glass fiber, jute fiber, and bamboo fiber, respectively. The position of fiber in the core layer is kept in a perpendicular direction with respect to adjacent piles which might be jute or bamboo fiber and the best position of fiber is considered due to the stacking order. Stress and strain were linear in the load versus deflection curves, and all of the samples failed quickly, it is observed that the sample containing a higher or considerable number of bamboo fiber layers exhibited increased strain and toughness. In comparison to other samples, embolism of glass fiber as the main and covering layer expressed a higher impact on the mechanical properties of the composites is observed in this investigation. The shattered sample morphology demonstrated that the matrix and reinforcements were compatible.
Composting and Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge for Campus Sustainability: A Review
Composting and anaerobic digestion have emerged as better options for managing food waste and sewage sludge at the campus level. This review highlights the characteristics of food waste and sewage sludge from various global higher education institutions. The composting and anaerobic digestion processes of food waste and sewage sludge will be reviewed and evaluated. Also, the adoption of composting and anaerobic digestion at various campus levels has been reviewed. The challenges and future direction, focusing on managing university campus composting and anaerobic digestion, are discussed as well. This review paper will significantly contribute to the understanding of the potential for managing and handling campus waste in a natural-friendly manner.
Optimization of Deep Eutectic Solvents Extraction of Effective Components from Phellodendron chinense Schneid by Response Surface Methodology
Taking Phellodendron chinense Schneid (PcS) as the raw material with ultrasonic-assisted eutectic solvent, the effects of various DESs on the extractable content of palmatine and berberine in PcS were investigated. On the basis of the single-factor test, the best DES was determined to be choline chloride and 1,3-propanediol (mole ratio 1 : 2). After optimizing by the response surface method, the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 30 (w/v), water content was 30% (v/v), vortex time was 7 min, ultrasonic time was 20 min, ultrasonic temperature was 60°C, ultrasonic power was 400 W, and the content of palmatine in PcS was 5.421 ± 0.283 mg/g, and the content of berberine in PcS was 15.573 ± 0.539 mg/g. Therefore, DES prepared from choline chloride and 1,3-propanediol can be used to extract palmatine and berberine from PcS. The optimized process conditions determined by the response surface method are reliable and can provide a reference for the green extraction of effective components from PcS.
Identifying the Geographical Origin of Tobacco Leaf by Strontium and Lead Isotopic with Mineral Elemental Fingerprint
The primary aim of this paper was to identifying the geographical origin of tobacco leaves based on stable isotopic and mineral elemental fingerprint. We collected eighty-one tobacco leaf samples from Argentina, Brazil, Zimbabwe, the U.S., Zambia, and China. And nine mineral element contents and four strontium and lead isotope ratios of the tobacco leaves were determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). After variance and stepwise discriminant analysis, the discriminant functions of the tobacco leaf’s geographical origin were established. The results indicate that: (1) the contents of six mineral elements including Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and Pb, together with four strontium and lead isotope ratios containing 87Sr/86Sr, 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb, were significantly different among six countries. (2) Different countries presented some characteristic mineral elemental and isotopic fingerprint. The even contents of mineral elements from Zambian tobacco leaf were much lower than the other countries, among which four elements consisting of Zn, Cr, As, and Cd were not detected. The three average lead isotope ratios including 208Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb from Zimbabwe tobacco leaves were far higher than the other countries, and the range of which was unoverlapped. (3) The effective identification of the geographical origin of tobacco leaf was accomplished by Fisher stepwise discriminant analysis and the characteristic tracing elements consisted of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, 87Sr/86Sr, 207Pb/204Pb, and 206Pb/204Pb. Based on the established discriminant functions, the original and cross-validation accuracy towards different geographical origins of tobacco leaves were 98.8% and 95.1%, respectively. The study shows that the strontium and lead isotopic with mineral elemental fingerprints is a potential effective method to identify the geographical origin of tobacco leaves from different countries.
Experimental Analysis and Improvements of a Visible Spectrophotometer for Detection of Nano Materials
As the field of nanotechnology advances, there is an increasing need for green nanomaterial identification devices. Recently, a few new studies have reminded us that as nanotechnology gets better and better, so will natural phenomena. As we grow closer to and finally reach the nanoscale, it is feasible that new physical expertise will develop. Developments in the future may allow for new technical advancements. It is the ability of nanotechnology to construct human constructs at the nanoscale that distinguishes it from other fields of science and engineering. Various components, including high-dissociation electron microscopy, centre-ion beam milling tools, and scanner probes, have made this practical. Spectrometers, sometimes known as spectrometers, are used in fabric identification machines. To conclude this inquiry, a nanoparticle scatter spectrometer was devised and built artificially. This study focused on the visible spectrum of spectroscopy because there are a broad number of programmes available for visible optical instruments.