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International Journal of Chemical Engineering publishes research focused on technologies for the production, processing, transportation and use of chemicals on an industrial scale.
Chief Editor, Evangelos Tsotsas, holds the Chair of Thermal Process Engineering at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg (Germany) since 1994. The main focus of his work is on drying, and on particle formulation processes related to drying, such as spray fluidized bed agglomeration.
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Assessment of Untreated Coffee Wastes for the Removal of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Medium
Industrial discharges loaded with heavy metals present several problems for aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the potential of raw spent coffee grounds to remove chromium from an aqueous medium. A structural and textural study of coffee grounds was carried out by FTIR, XRD, and TGA analysis. The optimum conditions for the removal of Cr(VI), for a solution with an initial concentration of 100 mg/l, were adsorbent dose 2.5 g/l, pH 4.0, and contact time 90 min. The adsorption equilibrium results show that the Langmuir isotherm best describes the process with an adsorption capacity of 42.9 mg/g and that the adsorption kinetics follows the pseudosecond-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. The activation energy value (Ea) indicated that the retention is physisorptive in nature. The regeneration of the adsorbent was carried out by three eluents, among which HCl was the best. Finally, a brief cost estimation showed the great potential of coffee grounds as a low-cost adsorbent.
Study of Extraction Kinetics of Total Polyphenols from Curry Leaves
Solid-liquid batch extraction of total polyphenol content from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L.) was studied in this paper. The effect of different solvent concentrations and temperatures on total polyphenol content was investigated by performing batch experiments. The experimental studies showed that the kinetics of solid-liquid batch extraction was influenced by different solvent concentrations and temperatures. In solid-liquid batch extraction, more recovery of total polyphenols was obtained for 50% (v/v) aqueous methanol and at 333 K temperature. The total polyphenol obtained at optimum conditions was 79.34 mgGAE/L. Mathematical modelling is an important engineering tool used to study the kinetics of extraction as well as in the design of the extraction process to reduce time, energy, and chemical reagents. Peleg and Power law, the two mathematical models, were used to study the kinetics of the batch extraction process. The Peleg model showed the best fit to explain the kinetics of process with R2 > 0.99. Further conventional extraction methods are compared with the novel extraction method.
Numerical Study on the Influence of Length-Diameter Ratio on the Performance of Dynamic Pressure Oil-Air Separator
In order to study the separation characteristics of the aeroengine dynamic pressure oil-air separator, this paper uses the coupling method of PBM and CFD two-fluid model to study the influencing factors such as cylinder diameter, cylinder length, and other factors on the separator performance. The flow field structure, velocity, gas volume distribution, separation efficiency, and gas and liquid holdup rate in the separator under different operating conditions are analyzed. Combined with the analysis results of the cylinder diameter and the cylinder length, the influence law of length-diameter ratio on separation efficiency is summarized. The optimum length-to-diameter ratio that maximizes the separation performance of the separator is obtained in this research, which provides a reference for the design and improvement of the separator. The results show that, as the diameter of the cylinder increases, the separation efficiency increases first and then decreases. When dsep = 16 mm and dsep = 18 mm, the separator reaches its maximum efficiency, which is about 93%. With the increase of the cylinder length, the separation efficiency first increases and reaches the maximum when l2 = 90 mm and then decreases slowly. When the separator cylinder is either too long or too short, it will cause the separation performance to decrease. There is an optimal aspect ratio. There is an optimal aspect ratio, and the separation performance of the separator is the best when the aspect ratio is between 5 and 6.
Developing a Robust Model Based on the Gaussian Process Regression Approach to Predict Biodiesel Properties
Biodiesel is assumed a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel that possesses the potential to substitute petroleum diesel. The basic purpose of the present study is to design a precise algorithm based on Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) model with several kernel functions, i.e., Rational Quadratic, Squared Exponential, Matern, and Exponential, to estimate biodiesel properties. These properties include kinematic viscosity (KV), pour point (PP), iodine value (IV), and cloud point (CP) as a function of fatty acid composition. In order to develop this model, some variables are assumed, such as molecular weight, carbon number, double bond numbers, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acid, weight percent of saturated acid, and temperature. The performance and efficiency of the GPR model are measured through several statistical criteria and the results are summarized in root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficients of determination (). and RMSE are sorted as 0.992 & 0.15697, 0.998 & 0.96580, 0.966 & 1.38659, and 0.968 & 1.56068 for four properties such as KV, IV, CP, and PP, respectively. It is worth to mention this point that the kernel function Squared Exponential shows a great performance for IV and PP and kernel functions Exponential and Matern indicate appropriate efficiency for CP and KV properties, respectively. On the other hand, the results of the offered GPR models are compared with those of the previous models, LSSVM-PSO and ANFIS. The outcomes proved the superiority of this model over two former models in point of estimating the biodiesel properties.
Research on Fabrication of Flame Retardant Nanocomposite Coating to Protect Steel Structures on Epikote 240 Epoxy Resin Base with the Synergy of MWCNTs and Fly Ash
The use of industrial wastes such as thermal power plant fly ash can reduce the environmental risk. The fly ash properties are useful and can contribute to organic coatings. This paper examines a new strategy for coatings that protect steel structures from the effects of fire while enhancing mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to show that the fly ash additive can be a partial replacement for other conventional additives while also having a flame retardant effect. To study the effectiveness of the use of fly ash additives, we have sought to combine them with nanoadditives. Specifically, we study the synergy of fly ash with multi-wall carbon nanotube additives to reinforce the coating on the system: epoxy Epikote 240/ammonium polyphosphate (APP)/pentaerythritol (PER), and melamine. Content of fly ash was studied: 10 wt.% with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 wt.% of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The results prove that the synergies between fly ash and multi-wall carbon nanotubes increase the fire resistance to increase the protection of steel structures of the building. When using 10 wt.% fly ash and 1 wt.% MWCNTS, the coating can be considered as a flame retardant material with UL 94V-0 fire resistance and the limiting oxygen index of 27.2%..
Electrochemical Performance Improvement of the Catalyst of the Methanol Microfuel Cell Using Carbon Nanotubes
In this research, the electrocatalytic activity of platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes and carbon black in methanol oxidation reaction has been investigated. Moreover, the electrochemical performance of a single passive direct methanol fuel cell run by these two different electrocatalysts has been reported. Physical characterization and electrochemical tests reveal the superiority of PtRu on carbon nanotubes. Based on the voltammetry outcomes, it was found that methanol oxidation reaction kinetics has been improved on the nanotube-supported catalyst. The current density of oxidation reaction has increased up to 62% in nanotube sample compared to carbon black-supported one. The electrochemical test results have shown that the carbon nanotubes increase the performance of the microfuel cell by 37% at maximum power density, compared to the carbon black. Moreover, the resistance of the samples supported by carbon nanotubes to poisonous intermediate species has been found 3% more than carbon black-supported one. According to the chronoamperometry test results, it was concluded that the performance and sustainability of the carbon nanotube electrocatalyst show a remarkable improvement compared to carbon black electrocatalyst in the long term.