International Journal of Chemical Engineering has recently been accepted into Science Citation Index Expanded.Go to Table of Contents
International Journal of Chemical Engineering publishes research focused on technologies for the production, processing, transportation and use of chemicals on an industrial scale.
Chief Editor, Evangelos Tsotsas, holds the Chair of Thermal Process Engineering at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg (Germany) since 1994. The main focus of his work is on drying, and on particle formulation processes related to drying, such as spray fluidized bed agglomeration.
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Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Crude Gossypol Compositions as Pour Point Depressants for Waxy Oil
Wax deposition from crude oil that blocks the pipeline and increases the viscosity of the fluid is considered as a serious challenge for petroleum transportation. Employment of chemical additives, the so-called pour point depressants (PPDs), is widely used to solve this problem. Among them are the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymers (EVAc), containing a polyethylene segment along the backbone with vinyl acetate. To improve the performance of EVAc as PPD, the compositions of this polymer with crude gossypol (CG), isolated from the refined cottonseed oil soapstock, were prepared by joint milling in a ball mill. Prepared compositions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet (UV), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The pour point and viscosity of the crude oil from the Akshabulak oil field (Kazakhstan) were studied. The compositions with 10, 20, and 25 wt% of CG demonstrate better efficiency as PPD for crude oil than EVAc at the dosage of PPD of 50, 100, 250, and 500 ppm. The improved properties of the obtained PPD in comparison with the commercial EVAc is explained by the appearance of additional nonpolar and polar groups caused by the formation of the EVAc/CG composition.
Adsorptive Desulfurization of Organic Sulfur from Model Fuels by Active Carbon Supported Mn (II): Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Thermodynamics
Mn (II)/AC adsorbents were prepared by ultrasonic impregnation. The 2 wt. % Mn/AC showed best adsorptive performance, and the optimal adsorption temperature was 313 K. Benzene, methylbenzene, and naphthalene were used to explore the adsorptive selectivity of Mn/AC, indicating that Mn could enhance the adsorptive capacity but could not improve the adsorptive selectivity. The adsorptive mechanism was mostly like to be π-complex. Adsorptive isotherms and kinetics were investigated, and the parameters were calculated. The R2, RMSE, and AICc were used to assess the optimal model. The results showed that Temkin adsorptive isotherm was more suitable to describe the isothermal data; the MPnO kinetics model was more superior to other kinetic models. The order of reaction was between 1 and 2. The outcome of adsorptive thermodynamics indicated that removal of DBT onto Mn/AC was a spontaneous and exothermic process.
The COD Removal of Lime and Subsequent Acid Pretreated Partially Stabilised Leachate via Granular-Activated Carbon
Background. This paper investigated the effectiveness of lime treatment and subsequent acid precipitation (using H2SO4) as a pretreatment of partially stabilised leachate. This study obtained high removal efficiencies (>70%) from the lime and acid pretreated partially stabilised leachate. The treatment of this wastewater with 10 g/L dosage of optimum lime (pH 12) at 25°C had led to the 41% COD elimination in the initial stages of pretreatment. Subsequent pH adjustment using 1 N sulfuric acid and granular-activated carbon adsorption in general revealed more than 92% removal of the 4 g/L of carbon dosage. Therefore, the results revealed that the adsorption of COD on the GAC stemmed from the kinetics rate of the pseudo-second-order.
Green Synthesis of S- and N-Codoped Carbon Nanospheres and Application as Adsorbent of Pb (II) from Aqueous Solution
In this paper, green and facile synthesis of sulfur- and nitrogen-codoped carbon nanospheres (CNs) was prepared from the extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L by a direct hydrothermal method. Finally, sulfur-carbon nanospheres (CNs) were used as the adsorbent to remove Pb+2 ions from aqueous solutions because of the high surface area of S-CNs from CNs and N-CNs. The synthesized nanospheres were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The results show spherical shapes have a particle size of up to 65 nm with a high surface area capable of absorbing lead ions efficiently. Additionally, the factors affecting the process of adsorption that include equilibrium time, temperature, pH solution, ionic intensity, and adsorbent dose were studied. The equilibrium removal efficiency was studied employing Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm forms. The kinetic data were analyzed with two different kinetic models, and both apply to the adsorption process depending on the values of correlation coefficients. The thermodynamic parameters including Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), standard enthalpy change (ΔH°), and standard entropy change (ΔS°) were calculated for the adsorption process.
Effects of the Amount of Fly Ash Modified by Stearic Acid Compound on Mechanical Properties, Flame Retardant Ability, and Structure of the Composites
Fly ash, a waste product from thermal power plants, is one of the good alternatives for use as a filler in polymers, especially in flame retardants. Fly ash is an environmentally friendly fire retardant additive for composites, used in place of conventional flame retardant additives such as halogenated organic compounds, thus promoting environmental safety. In this study, fly ash was modified with stearic acid to improve adhesion at the polymers interface and increase compatibility. Fly ash was studied at various volumes (5, 10, and 20 wt.% fly ash) used in this study to synthesize fly ash-epoxy composites. The results show that the tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, and impact strength of these synthetic materials increase when fly ash is modified to the surface, compressive strength: 197.87 MPa, flexural strength: 75.20 MPa, impact resistance: 5.77 KJ/m2, and tensile strength: 47.89 MPa. Especially, the fire retardant properties are improved at a high level, with a modified 20% fly ash content: the burning rate of 16.78 mm/min, minimum oxygen index of 23.2%, and meet the fire protection standard according to UL 94HB with a burning rate of 8.09 mm/min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the morphological structure of fly ash after being modified and chemically bonded with epoxy resin background.
CO2 Utilization Process Simulation for Enhancing Production of Dimethyl Ether (DME)
Increase in the world energy demand also increases the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, which contributes to global warming and ocean acidification. This study proposed the simulation process to utilize CO2 released from the acid gas removal unit in one of gas processing plants in Indonesia to enhance the production of dimethyl ether (DME) through unreacted gas recycle that can be beneficial in reducing CO2 emission to the atmosphere. Simulation was developed in Unisim R390.1 using Peng–Robinson–Stryjek–Vera (PRSV) as a fluid package. Simulation was validated by several studies conducted by many researchers and giving satisfactory results especially in terms of productivity, conversion, and selectivity as a function of reactor temperatures in the indirect and the direct DME synthesis processes. Simulation results show that the DME production was enhanced by around 49.6% and 65.1% for indirect and direct processes, respectively, at a recycling rate of 7 MMSCFD. Compressor is required to increase the unreacted gas pressure to the desired pressure in the methanol reactor or dual methanol-DME reactor in both processes. Specific power consumption (SPC) was used as a tested parameter for the effectiveness of recycling unreacted gas. Based on the simulation, the direct DME synthesis process is superior over the indirect process in terms of DME and methanol productions, SPCs, and system energy efficiencies.