Advances in the Use of Nanocomposite Membranes for Carbon Capture OperationsRead the full article
International Journal of Chemical Engineering publishes research focused on technologies for the production, processing, transportation and use of chemicals on an industrial scale.
Chief Editor, Evangelos Tsotsas, holds the Chair of Thermal Process Engineering at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg (Germany) since 1994. The main focus of his work is on drying, and on particle formulation processes related to drying, such as spray fluidized bed agglomeration.
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Comparison of the Efficiency of Ultraviolet/Zinc Oxide (UV/ZnO) and Ozone/Zinc Oxide (O3/ZnO) Techniques as Advanced Oxidation Processes in the Removal of Trimethoprim from Aqueous Solutions
Nowadays, advanced oxidation processes, particularly photocatalyst process and catalytic ozonation by ZnO nanoparticles, are the most efficient method of eliminating pharmaceuticals. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of ultraviolet/zinc oxide (UV/ZnO) and ozone/zinc oxide (O3/ZnO) techniques as advanced oxidation processes in the removal of trimethoprim (TMP) from aqueous solutions. The process consisted of 0.6 g/L of ozone (O3), pH = 7.5 ± 0.5, TMP with a concentration of 0.5–5 mg/L, ZnO with a dose of 50–500 mg/L, 5–30 min reaction time, and 30–180 min contact time with UV radiation (6 W, 256 nm) in a continuous reactor. The high removal efficiency was achieved after 25 minutes when ZnO is used in 1 mg/L TMP under an operational condition at pH 7.5. When the concentration of the pollutant increased from 0.5 to 1, the average removal efficiency increased from 78% to 94%, and then, it remained almost constant. An increase in the reaction time from 5 to 25 minutes will cause the average elimination to increase from 84% to 94%. The results showed that the efficiency of O3/ZnO process in the removal of TMP was 94%, while the removal efficiency of UV/ZnO process was 91%. The findings exhibited that the kinetic study followed the second-order kinetics, both processes. With regard to the results, the photocatalyst process and catalytic ozonation by ZnO nanoparticles can make acceptable levels for an efficient posttreatment. Finally, this combined system is proven to be a technically effective method for treating antibiotic contaminants.
Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Wastewater Using Periodiated Modified Nanocellulose
The study was focused on the preparation and characterizations of sodium periodate-modified nanocellulose (NaIO4-NC) prepared from Eichhornia crassipes for the removal of cationic methylene blue (MB) dye from wastewater (WW). A chemical method was used for the preparation of NaIO4-NC. The prepared NaIO4-NC adsorbent was characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) instruments. Next, it was tested to the adsorption of MB dye from WW using batch experiments. The adsorption process was performed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models with maximum adsorption efficiency (qmax) of 90.91 mg·g−1 and percent color removal of 78.1% at optimum 30 mg·L−1, 60 min., 1 g, and 8 values of initial concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose, and solution pH, respectively. Pseudo-second-order (PSO) kinetic model was well fitted for the adsorption of MB dye through the chemisorption process. The adsorption process was spontaneous and feasible from the thermodynamic study because the Gibbs free energy value was negative. After adsorption, the decreased values for physicochemical parameters of WW were observed in addition to the color removal. From the regeneration study, it is possible to conclude that NaIO4-NC adsorbent was recyclable and reused as MB dye adsorption for 13 successive cycles without significant efficient loss.
Advanced Applications of Fuel Cells during the COVID-19 Pandemic
COVID-19 was identified all over the world as a pandemic in December 2019. This novel coronavirus affects the lower respiratory area, which causes pneumonia in the human body and transfers from human to human. Every day, the number of new patients and the number of deaths are increasing immensely, while specific drugs for this virus are still being developed. Hospitals are struggling to accommodate patients, resulting in a large number of temporary hospitals. These makeshift hospitals need an uninterrupted power supply to continuously maintain all the electrical facilities. Fuel cells, especially solid oxide fuel cells, play an essential role in meeting the additional energy needs of humankind during this critical moment. SOFCs are able to supply power to those makeshift hospitals from the main hospital building, as well as supplying electricity to locked-down residential areas to ease the strain on the electrical grid during this pandemic situation. As a result of their extensive applicability and numerous uses, SOFCs can be used to address electrical needs challenges in various sectors.
Assessment of Untreated Coffee Wastes for the Removal of Chromium (VI) from Aqueous Medium
Industrial discharges loaded with heavy metals present several problems for aquatic ecosystems and human health. In this context, the present study aims to evaluate the potential of raw spent coffee grounds to remove chromium from an aqueous medium. A structural and textural study of coffee grounds was carried out by FTIR, XRD, and TGA analysis. The optimum conditions for the removal of Cr(VI), for a solution with an initial concentration of 100 mg/l, were adsorbent dose 2.5 g/l, pH 4.0, and contact time 90 min. The adsorption equilibrium results show that the Langmuir isotherm best describes the process with an adsorption capacity of 42.9 mg/g and that the adsorption kinetics follows the pseudosecond-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption is exothermic and spontaneous. The activation energy value (Ea) indicated that the retention is physisorptive in nature. The regeneration of the adsorbent was carried out by three eluents, among which HCl was the best. Finally, a brief cost estimation showed the great potential of coffee grounds as a low-cost adsorbent.
Study of Extraction Kinetics of Total Polyphenols from Curry Leaves
Solid-liquid batch extraction of total polyphenol content from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L.) was studied in this paper. The effect of different solvent concentrations and temperatures on total polyphenol content was investigated by performing batch experiments. The experimental studies showed that the kinetics of solid-liquid batch extraction was influenced by different solvent concentrations and temperatures. In solid-liquid batch extraction, more recovery of total polyphenols was obtained for 50% (v/v) aqueous methanol and at 333 K temperature. The total polyphenol obtained at optimum conditions was 79.34 mgGAE/L. Mathematical modelling is an important engineering tool used to study the kinetics of extraction as well as in the design of the extraction process to reduce time, energy, and chemical reagents. Peleg and Power law, the two mathematical models, were used to study the kinetics of the batch extraction process. The Peleg model showed the best fit to explain the kinetics of process with R2 > 0.99. Further conventional extraction methods are compared with the novel extraction method.
Numerical Study on the Influence of Length-Diameter Ratio on the Performance of Dynamic Pressure Oil-Air Separator
In order to study the separation characteristics of the aeroengine dynamic pressure oil-air separator, this paper uses the coupling method of PBM and CFD two-fluid model to study the influencing factors such as cylinder diameter, cylinder length, and other factors on the separator performance. The flow field structure, velocity, gas volume distribution, separation efficiency, and gas and liquid holdup rate in the separator under different operating conditions are analyzed. Combined with the analysis results of the cylinder diameter and the cylinder length, the influence law of length-diameter ratio on separation efficiency is summarized. The optimum length-to-diameter ratio that maximizes the separation performance of the separator is obtained in this research, which provides a reference for the design and improvement of the separator. The results show that, as the diameter of the cylinder increases, the separation efficiency increases first and then decreases. When dsep = 16 mm and dsep = 18 mm, the separator reaches its maximum efficiency, which is about 93%. With the increase of the cylinder length, the separation efficiency first increases and reaches the maximum when l2 = 90 mm and then decreases slowly. When the separator cylinder is either too long or too short, it will cause the separation performance to decrease. There is an optimal aspect ratio. There is an optimal aspect ratio, and the separation performance of the separator is the best when the aspect ratio is between 5 and 6.