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International Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 2010, Article ID 879836, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/879836
Review Article

Monitoring and Modelling the Trends of Primary and Secondary Air Pollution Precursors: The Case of the State of Kuwait

1Petrochemical Processes Program Element, Petroleum Research and Studies Centre, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait
2Department of Environmental Technology and Management, College for Women, Kuwait University, P.O. Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait

Received 13 January 2010; Accepted 12 July 2010

Academic Editor: Yves Andrès

Copyright © 2010 S. M. Al-Salem and A. R. Khan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, processes of different scales have contributed greatly to the pollution and waste load on the environment. More specifically, airborne pollutants associated with chemical processes have contributed greatly on the ecosystem and populations health. In this communication, we review recent activities and trends of primary and secondary air pollutants in the state of Kuwait, a country associated with petroleum, petrochemical, and other industrial pollution. Trends of pollutants and impact on human health have been studied and categorized based on recent literature. More attention was paid to areas known to researchers as either precursor sensitive (i.e., nitrogen oxides (N), volatile organic compounds (VOCs)) or adjacent to upstream- or downstream-related activities. Environmental monitoring and modelling techniques relevant to this study are also reviewed. Two case studies that link recent data with models associated with industrial sectors are also demonstrated, focusing mainly on chemical mass balance (CMB) and Gaussian line source modelling. It is concluded that a number of the monitoring stations and regulations placed by the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA) need up-to-date revisions and better network placement, in agreement with previous findings.