Table 9: Parameters applied to evaluate the influence of the exits on the flow.


Backflux relative height: distance from the top of the riser traveled by the particulate phase in downward motion divided by riser height.
Exit reflection coefficient: fraction of the riser transversal area within which solids move downwards.
Asymmetry of : defined by the difference between the fraction of the area with negative velocity of solids located at the positive and the negative side of the -axis.
Film thickness of downflow: given by [28].