International Journal of Chemical Engineering / 2012 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Biofuels Production from Biomass by Thermochemical Conversion Technologies

Table 2

Physicochemical characteristics of bio-oils obtained by different processes/biomass types.

StudyBiomass sourcePyrolysis temperature
Bio-oil yield
Moisture content
pHSpecific gravity
Calorific value (MJ/kg)Viscosity (cP) @ temperature (°C)Solids
Distillation residue

Salehi et al., [6]Sawdust of mixture of woods50033–45391.85 30.726.671.0761.5410.93

Czernik and Bridgwater, [27]Wood15–302.5 54–585.5–7.00–0.235–400–0.216–19*40– 0.2–1.0up to 50

Ates and Isikdag, [28] Oat straw60020.365.06.91.326.932.74*
Wheat straw19.*

Azeez et al., [29]Beech 470 62.722.22.541. 0.215#
Spruce62.7222.842. 0.115.4#
Albizia54.725.12.941.97.40.650.117.4 0.212.2#
Corn cob56.732.2338.180.753.215.8 0.18.5#

Bhattacharya et al., [30]Pine : polystyrene
(50 : 50 w/w)
52564.99.472.82 66.276.72<0.57.0228.42*
Pine : high-density polyethylene
(50 : 50 w/w)
45038.910.653.21 74.389.11<0.56.3327.68*
Pine : polypropylene
(50 : 50 w/w)
450465.443.02 79.710.64<0.59.536.94*
Pine wood45050.10133.1 57.27<0.0932.2

Boateng et al., [31]Switchgrass48060.7123.02 40.786.980.3347.250.01116.02

Fonts et al., [32]Wastewater sludge550~5027.2–46.60.972– 30.60–32.09*0.07–0.12

Garcìa-Pérez et al., [33]Softwood50045.0–53.93.0 62.597.021.0529.020.2527.9*

He et al., [34]Swine manure35076.*

Hilten et al., [35]Pine wood pellets45057.710.02.48*

Miao and Wu, [36]Microalgae45057.20.9276.2211.610.9311.2441*

Mullen et al., [37]Corn cob50061.055.147.560.5636.90.0819.5*
Corn stover61.653.976.921.1837.940.0922.1*

Mullen et al., [38]Whole barley straw~50042–5026.72.450.783.21.3744.4224.2*
Whole barley hulls13.82.454.735.321.7938.4924.1*
Distiller’s dried grains with solubles18.76.574.028.925.056.2432.9*

Oasmaa et al., [3]Pinus sylvestris 480–52072.723.92.71.20640.67.6<
Forest residue (brown)57.926.73.21.19441.47.40.350.90.320.9170.17
Forest residue (green)63.725.51.2141.280.350.50.120.4240.09
Barley straw52.051.13.726.590.962.718.60.43
Timothy hay52.539.33.41.1532.18.50.658.70.00418.450.01
Reed canary grass75.027.43.639.37.70.651.819.70.15

Uzun et al., [39]Olive-oil residue55069.528.621.7621.2432.13

Xiu et al., [40, 41]Swine manure50024.22.3772.589.764.4713.190.1336.05*

Yin et al., [42]Cattle manure31048.7673.728.131.3916.7635.53*

Zhang et al., [43]Corn cob550 (without catalyst)*0.30
550 (with catalyst)~*0.20

— Not available.
*High heating value (HHV).
**Kinematic viscosity, cST.
#Lignin content.

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