Table 4: Comparison of various biomass pyrolysis reactors based on overall performance and efficiency.

PyrolyzerStatus (units)Bio-oil yield (wt%)Operational complexityParticle sizeBiomass variabilityScale-upInert gas flow rate

Fixed bedPilot (single),
lab (multiple)
75MediumLargeHighHardLow
Fluidized bedDemo (multiple),
lab (multiple)
75MediumSmallLowEasyHigh
Recirculating bedPilot (multiple), lab (multiple)75HighMediumLowHardHigh
Rotating ConeDemo (single)70MediumMediumHighMediumLow
AblativePilot (single),
lab (multiple)
75HighLargeHighHardLow
Screw/auger reactorPilot (multiple), lab (multiple)70LowMediumHighEasyLow
VacuumPilot (single),
lab (few)
60HighLargeMediumHardLow