Table 4: Hydrodynamic and thermal models for the two-fluid gas-solid flow approach.

Gas-phase momentum
Gas-phase stress tensor
Solid-phase momentum
Solid-phase stress tensor
Solid-phase pressure, Ogawa et al. [38]
Particle-particle restitution coefficient, Jiradilok et al. [21]
Radial distribution function, Ogawa et al. [38]
Solid-phase bulk viscosity, Lun et al. [39]
Solid-phase shear viscosity, Gidaspow [17]
Gas-solid drag, Gidaspow [17]
Energy balance
Heat exchange, Ranz and Marshall [40]