Table 3: The specifications and operating conditions of the Volvo D12C diesel engine.

Bore131 mm
Stroke150 mm
Squish1.85 mm
Connecting rod260 mm
Injector nozzle dia ()0.235 mm
Engine speed1000 rpm
Start of injection−5.5 CAD ATDC
Injection duration 9.2 CAD
Injection modeMain
Injected mass/stroke60.8 × 10−6  kg
Initial pressure103 kPa
Initial temp56.84°C
Included angle of spray145 deg
Spray cone 1/2 angle12.5 deg
Initial droplet temp76.84°C