Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 310285, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/310285
Research Article

Growing Chlorella vulgaris in Photobioreactor by Continuous Process Using Concentrated Desalination: Effect of Dilution Rate on Biochemical Composition

1Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Avenue Admar Gonzaga 1346, Itacorubi, 88034-001 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil
2Laboratory of Environmental Engineering, University of South Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Avenue Pedra Branca, Unidade Pedra Branca, 88137-270 Palhoca, SC, Brazil
3Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Campina Grande, Avenue Aprigio Veloso 882, Bodocongo, 58429-170 Campina Grande, PB, Brazil

Received 26 March 2014; Revised 16 June 2014; Accepted 16 June 2014; Published 2 July 2014

Academic Editor: Diego T. Santos

Copyright © 2014 Ângelo Paggi Matos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Anupama and P. Ravindra, “Value-added food: single cell protein,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 459–479, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. P. Bezerra, M. C. Matsudo, S. Sato, P. Perego, A. Converti, and J. C. M. de Carvalho, “Effects of photobioreactor configuration, nitrogen source and light intensity on the fed-batch cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Bioenergetic aspects,” Biomass & Bioenergy, vol. 37, pp. 309–317, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. Briassoulis, P. Panagakis, M. Chionidis et al., “An experimental helical-tubular photobioreactor for continuous production of Nannochloropsis sp.,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 17, pp. 6768–6777, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. Molina Grima, F. G. A. Fernández, F. García Camacho, and Y. Chisti, “Photobioreactors: light regime, mass transfer, and scaleup,” Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 70, no. 1–3, pp. 231–247, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. U. Ugwu, H. Aoyagi, and H. Uchiyama, “Photobioreactors for mass cultivation of algae,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 4021–4028, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Wang, H. Xiong, Z. Hui, and X. Zeng, “Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with diluted primary piggery wastewater to produce lipids,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 104, pp. 215–220, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. Volkmann, U. Imianovsky, J. L. B. Oliveira, and E. S. Sant'Anna, “Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis in desalinator wastewater and salinated synthetic medium: protein content and amino-acid profile,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 98–101, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. D. S. Menezes, V. P. Campos, and T. A. D. C. Costa, “Desalination of brackish water for household drinking water consumption using typical plant seeds of semi arid regions,” Desalination, vol. 281, no. 1, pp. 271–277, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. Perez-Garcia, F. M. E. Escalante, L. E. de-Bashan, and Y. Bashan, “Heterotrophic cultures of microalgae: metabolism and potential products,” Water Research, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 11–36, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. E. N. Sassano, L. A. Gioielli, L. S. Ferreira et al., “Evaluation of the composition of continuously-cultivated Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source,” Biomass & Bioenergy, vol. 34, no. 12, pp. 1732–1738, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. M. Sobczuk and Y. Chisti, “Potential fuel oils from the microalga Choricystis minor,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 100–108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Y. Li, Y. Chen, P. Chen et al., “Characterization of a microalga Chlorella sp. well adapted to highly concentrated municipal wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 5138–5144, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC, USA, 21st edition, 2005.
  14. L. R. I. Morioka, A. P. Matos, G. Olivo, and E. S. Sant'Anna, “Floculação de Chlorella sp. produzida em concentrado de dessalinização e estudo de método de extração de lipídeos intracelulares,” Química Nova, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 44–49, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  15. C.-Y. Kao, S.-Y. Chiu, T.-T. Huang et al., “A mutant strain of microalga Chlorella sp. for the carbon dioxide capture from biogas,” Biomass & Bioenergy, vol. 36, pp. 132–140, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. E. N. Sassano, L. A. Gioielli, K. A. Almeida et al., “Cultivation of Spirulina platensis by continuous process using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source,” Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 593–598, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. W. Horwitz, Ed., Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC, Washington, DC, USA, 1975.
  18. L. Hartman and R. C. A. Lago, “Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids,” Laboratory Practice, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 475–476, 1973. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. P. Bezerra, E. Y. O. Montoya, S. Sato, P. Perego, J. C. M. de Carvalho, and A. Converti, “Effects of light intensity and dilution rate on the semicontinuous cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. A kinetic Monod-type approach,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 3215–3219, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Marchetti, G. Bougaran, L. le Dean et al., “Optimizing conditions for the continuous culture of Isochrysis affinis galbana relevant to commercial hatcheries,” Aquaculture, vol. 326-329, pp. 106–115, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Tang, M. Chen, K. Y. Simon Ng, and S. O. Salley, “Continuous microalgae cultivation in a photobioreactor,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 109, no. 10, pp. 2468–2474, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Aiba, E. Humphery, and N. F. Millis, Biochemical Engineering, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1973.
  23. H. Zheng, Z. Gao, F. Yin, X. Ji, and H. Huang, “Lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris from lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues through two-step enzymatic hydrolysis,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 117, pp. 1–6, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. P. Batista, L. Gouveia, N. M. Bandarra, J. M. Franco, and A. Raymundo, “Comparison of microalgal biomass profiles as novel functional ingredient for food products,” Algal Research, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 164–173, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. H. M. Sinclair, “Essential fatty acids—a historical perspective,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 756–761, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Liu and Q. Hu, “Chlorella: industrial production of cell mass and chemicals,” in Handbook of Microalgal Culture: Applied Phycology and Biotechnology, A. Richmond and Q. Hu, Eds., p. 346, Wiley Blackwell, West Sussex, UK, 2nd edition, 2013. View at Google Scholar