Table 3: Properties of chars, liquid, and gas products derived from palm shell pyrolysis at temperature of 650°C, N2 flow rate of 200 cm3/min, particle size of 0.28 mm, and feed rate of 0.6 g/min.


Char product
Proximate analysis (dry basis) (wt%)
 Fixed carbon69.97
Elemental analysis (dry and ash—free basis) (wt%)
 H 1.67
 H/C (mole ratio)0.20
 O/C (mole ratio)0.47
Calorific value (MJ/kg)29.87
Porous characteristics
 BET surface area (m2/g)200
 Micropore area (m2/g)182
 Average pore size (nm)2.03
 Total pore volume (cm3/g)0.111
 Micropore volume (cm3/g)0.091
Liquid product
Viscosity at 40° (cP)3.5
Density at 30°C (g/cm3)1.16
pH 2.67
Calorific value (MJ/kg)5.8 (35.3*)
Water contents (wt %) 51
n-Octane, C8 (wt%)2.542
Phenol (wt%)1.987
Furfural (wt%)0.876
Benzene (wt%)0.386
Toluene (wt%)0.712
Xylene (wt%)0.364
Styrene (wt%)0.128
Gas product
CO (%)18.13
CO2 (%)10.10
CH4 (%)4.21
H2 (%)1.67

Water removed.