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International Journal of Chemical Engineering
Volume 2018, Article ID 7305973, 25 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7305973
Research Article

Combined Effects of Thermal Radiation and Nanoparticles on Free Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Casson Fluid over a Vertical Plate

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria

Correspondence should be addressed to M. G. Sobamowo; moc.liamg@iyinimebgekim

Received 18 February 2018; Revised 27 April 2018; Accepted 9 May 2018; Published 3 September 2018

Academic Editor: Iftekhar A. Karimi

Copyright © 2018 M. G. Sobamowo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The influences of thermal radiation and nanoparticles on free convection flow and heat transfer of Casson nanofluids over a vertical plate are investigated. The governing systems of nonlinear partial differential equations of the flow and heat transfer processes are converted to systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations through similarity transformations. The resulting systems of fully coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved using the differential transformation method with Padé-approximant technique. The accuracies of the developed analytical methods are verified by comparing their results with the results of past works as presented in the literature. Thereafter, the analytical solutions are used to investigate the effects of thermal radiation, Prandtl number, nanoparticle volume fraction, shape, and type on the flow and heat transfer behaviour of various nanofluids over the flat plate. It is observed that both the velocity and temperature of the nanofluid as well as the viscous and thermal boundary layers increase with increase in the thermal radiation parameter. The velocity of the nanofluid decreases and the temperature of the nanofluid increase, respectively, as the Prandtl number and volume fraction of the nanoparticles in the base fluid increase. The decrease in velocity and increase in temperature are highest in lamina-shaped nanoparticle and followed by platelet-, cylinder-, brick-, and sphere-shaped nanoparticles, respectively. Using a common base fluid to all the nanoparticle types, it is established that the decrease in velocity and increase in temperature are highest in TiO2 and followed by CuO, Al2O3, and SWCNT nanoparticles, in that order. It is hoped that the present study will enhance the understanding of free convection boundary layer problems of Casson fluid under the influences of thermal radiation and nanoparticles as applied in various engineering processes.