Table 1: Catalytic transformation of lactic acid from different feedstocks by alkaline.

EntrySubstrateCatalystReaction conditionsYield of LA (%)Reference

1GlycolaldehydeNaOH300°C, 10 min28.1[26]
2GlucoseNaOH300°C, 1 min27[27]
Ca(OH)2300°C, 1 min20
3GlycerinKOH300°C, 80 min90[28]
4GlucoseNaOH300°C, 1 min27[29]
GlucoseCa(OH)2300°C, 1 min20
CelluloseCa(OH)2300°C, 90 s19.2
StarchCa(OH)2300°C, 90 s18.7
5CelluloseNaOH + Ni300°C, 1 min34.1[30]
6GlucoseNaOH + CuO188°C, 0.15 min59[31]
7CelluloseNaOH + Zn/Ni/C300°C, 5 min42[32]
8GlucoseNaOH + NiCl2300°C, 1 min25[33]
9GlucoseNa2SiO3300°C, 1 min30[34]
10D-GlucoseHydrotalcite50°C, 8 h20.3[35]
11D-GlucoseKOH/Al2O3
Microwave
180°C, microwave 3.1 W·g−1, 40 min75[36]
D-Mannose41
D-Fructose36
D-Ribose43
D-Arabinose35
D-Sucrose23
12HydroxyacetonePt/MgO-Al2O3-80040°C, 6 h100 (selectivity)[37]
13Glucose[IMEP]Cl, NaOH100°C, 30 min, N263[38]
[IMEP]Cl, KOH65.5
14GlucoseBa(OH)2250°C, 3 min57[39]
15GlucoseBa(OH)2Ball milling (solvent-free)35.6[40]
16GlucoseBa(OH)225°C, 48 h95.4[41]
Fructose83.5
17Corn cobsCa(OH)2300°C, 30 min44.76[42]
18Bread residuesCa(OH)2300°C, 30 min73[43]
19Rice strawNaOH, NiO nanoplates260°C, 2 h58.81[44]
20AlginateCaO200°C, 6 h14.66[45]