Table 2: Catalytic transformation of lactic acid from C6 sugars and cellulose by acids.

EntrySubstrateCatalystReaction conditionsYield of LA (%)Reference

1GlucoseNb2O5 nanorod250°C, 4 h39[65]
2FructoseSn(IV) organometallic complexes190°C, 0.5 h63[66]
3SucroseZn-Sn-Beta190°C, 2 h54[67]
4GlucosePb-Sn-Beta190°C, 2 h52[68]
5FructoseMIL-100 (Fe)190°C, 2 h32[69]
6LevoglucosanLa(OTf)3250°C, 1 h75[70]
Glucose74
Xylose61
7CelluloseAlW190°C, 24 h28[71]
ZrW19
8CelluloseZrW190°C, 24 h3 g/L−1[72]
Pine wood sawdust190°C, 8 h1.2 g/L−1
9XyloseZrO2200°C, 40 min42[73]
Xylan200°C, 90 min30
10CelluloseZrO2 (monoclinic)200°C, 6 h21.2[74]
11Cellulose10%ZrO2-Al2O3200°C, 6 h25.3[75]
12CelluloseEr(OTf)3240°C, 30 min89.6[76]
13CelluloseErCl3240°C, 30 min91.1[77]
14CelluloseEr-K10240°C, 30 min67.6[78]
15CelluloseEr/deAlβ-zeolite240°C, 30 min58[79]
16CellulosePb(NO3)2190°C, 2 h71[80]
17CelluloseVOSO4180°C, 2 h54[81]
18FructoseAlCl3 + SnCl2190°C, 2 h90[82]
Glucose180°C, 2 h81
Cellulose190°C, 2 h65
19CelluloseNbF5-AlF3180°C, 2 h27.3[83]
20CelluloseNb@CaF2180°C, 2 h15.4[84]
21XyloseLaCoO3 perovskite200°C, 1 h38[85]
Glucose200°C, 1 h40
Cellulose240°C, 1 h24