Table 3: Catalytic production of lactates from C6 sugars and cellulose via acid-catalysis.

EntrySubstrateCatalystReaction conditionsYield of lactates (%)Reference

1GlucoseSnCl4-NaOH160°C, 2.5 h47[106]
Fructose57
Sucrose51
2FructoseInCl3·4H2O-SnCl2, NaBF4160°C, 10 h72[107]
3GlucoseZnCl2200°C, 3 h47.7[108]
Fructose51.7
Sucrose47.5
4SucroseSn-beta160°C, 20 h68[109]
Glucose43
Fructose44
5XyloseSn-beta140°C, 20 h42[110]
6GlucoseSn-MCM-41160°C, 20 h43[111]
7SucroseK-PT-Sn-beta170°C, 16 h71[112]
8XyloseZr-SBA-15240°C, 6 h41[113]
Fructose44
Glucose38
Sucrose40
9GlucoseHierarchical Sn-Beta160°C, 10 h58[114]
10InulinSn-SBA-15160°C, 20 h57[115]
11SucroseSn-beta-H160°C, 20 h72.1[116]
12FructoseSn-beta-9h160°C, 10 h47[117]
Mannose39
Sucrose57
13FructoseSn-Si-CSM-773–20.4155°C, 20 h17[118]
Glucose32
Sucrose45
14SucroseZIF-8160°C, 24 h42[119]
15Glucoseγ-Al2O3160°C, 6 h34[120]
16CelluloseSnCl2·2H2O-ZnCl2210°C, 4 h32.1[121]
Sugarcane bagasse190°C, 6 h31.2
17CelluloseZr-SBA-15240°C, 10 h28.1[113]
18CelluloseZr-SBA-15260°C, 2 h∼33[122]
19CelluloseGa-doped Zn/H-nanozeolite Y270°C, 5 h57.8[123]
Glucose270°C, 1 h64.0
Fructose270°C, 1 h67.3