Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Dental Assistants regarding Dental Asepsis and Sterilization in the Dental WorkplaceRead the full article
International Journal of Dentistry publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of dentistry, including periodontal diseases, dental implants, oral pathology, as well as oral and maxillofacial surgery.
International Journal of Dentistry maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Efficacy of MI Paste® on Bleaching-Related Sensitivity: Randomized Clinical Trial
Background. To evaluate the effectiveness of MI Paste® in reducing sensitivity associated with vital tooth bleaching. Methods. This randomized controlled split-mouth clinical trial included 45 subjects that were randomly divided into two groups. In Group 1, the maxillary arch was the control arch (only bleaching), while the mandibular arch was the intervention arch (bleaching and MI Paste®). In Group 2, the mandibular arch was the control arch (only bleaching), while the maxillary arch was the intervention arch (bleaching and MI Paste®). Subjects started with the control arch and then switched to the intervention arch after two weeks. Subjects were instructed to use MI Paste® in a custom tray for 5 minutes, wait for 1 hour, and then bleach overnight using a different tray. Sensitivity was measured using both a thermal sensitivity test and a daily log of sensitivity for 14 days. Shade was evaluated using a colorimeter and a shade guide. Results. Immediately after treatment, the thermal test sensitivity scores for the arches bleached without MI Paste® were greater than those with MI Paste® (). Arches not receiving the MI Paste® treatment showed significantly higher VAS sensitivity scores during the 14-day period of bleaching (). The mean score for the 14-day period was 37.9 for the arches not treated with MI Paste® versus 27.5 for the treated arches. Both the intervention group and the control group showed significantly lighter shade relative to baseline () with no significant difference between them (). Conclusion. MI Paste® significantly reduced the sensitivity associated with bleaching and did not interfere with shade change.
Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Clinicians towards Light-Curing Units: A Cross-Sectional Study
Objectives. Light curing is crucial when applying composite resin restorations. Complete polymerization of the resin depends on delivering adequate light energy to it. Dental clinicians may be unaware of the importance of proper light-curing techniques. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing the level of knowledge of general practitioners (GPs) and specialists (SPs) regarding light-curing units. Materials and Methods. An electronic survey was conducted online among GPs and SPs of various specialties, working in the governmental sector in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Collected data were analyzed for statistical significance. Results. 310 dentists were included in the study. Nearly half of the GPs (45.9%) and more than half of SPs (56.8%) use light-emitting diode (LED) type light-curing units (LCUs). 36.9% of GPs and 29.6% of SPs were unsure about the type of LCUs they use in their dental clinics. 10.8% of GPs and 8.5% of SPs knew the proper term of the power output of LCU. 52.2% of the GPs and 55.7% of SPs were wrong about advancements in technology of LED LCUs. Regarding the use of radiometer, 48.2% of SPs and 35.1% of GPs had responded wrongly, and 37.7% of SPs and 52.3% of GPs were not familiar with the device, showing a statistical significance . There was no statistical significance observed in the responses pertaining to their years of experience, expected for two questions. Conclusion. Both GPs and SPs displayed inadequate knowledge regarding the use of LCUs. Further educational programs are recommended to spread awareness about the handling of LCUs among dental clinicians.
Prevalence of Postoperative Infection after Tooth Extraction: A Retrospective Study
The aim of the study was to identify the postoperative infection rates after tooth extraction in a university dental clinic and to identify the factors associated with an increased risk for postoperative infection. A retrospective study of case records of patients who underwent tooth extractions at the International Medical University’s Oral Health Centre (IMU-OHC) over a span of 6 years was conducted. Data on demography, patient-related factors, and treatment-related factors were extracted from the case records. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the odds ratio of a patient having a postoperative infection or not, comparing it with each variable. A total of 1821 extractions, including simple and complex extractions, were performed over 6 years. Only 25 (1.4%) of the cases were reported to have a postoperative infection. The complexity of the extraction was the only variable that significantly affected the occurrence of postoperative infection after extraction; more complex extractions were reported with higher rates of infection (binary logistic regression, OR = 2.03, = 0.004). None of the other factors, including antibiotic prescription, had a significant influence on the occurrence of postoperative infection. The prevalence of postoperative infection after dental extractions was low in IMU-OHC, and prescribing antibiotics had no added advantage in the prevention of postoperative infection.
Relationship between Macrovascular and Microvascular Hemodynamics Assessed by Spectrophotometry in Periodontal Diseases
Objective. The aim of this study is to identify a possible link between macrovascular hemodynamic status and microvascular hemodynamic indices in patients with periodontal disease. Methods and Materials. Seventeen adult patients are recruited on a voluntary basis at the Dentistry Department of the “Mater Domini” University of Catanzaro, with sampling that determines the lipid profile, blood glucose, inflammatory mediators, blood plasma viscosity: anamnesis, blood pressure measurement, and detection of anthropometric parameters: eco-Doppler of the carotid arteries and brachial arteries with noninvasive measurements of hemodynamics and evaluation of inflammation and periodontal circulation with a noninvasive spectroscopic technique. The subjects underwent a dental inspection with periodontal proves. The different indices of periodontal disease were evaluated. Results. The sites with high probing depth differ from the healthy ones, showing low oxygen saturation and a notable increase in tissue edema, but no correlation between macro- and microvascular values was found. Conclusion. Periodontal probing and spectroscopic examination showed the correlation between low oxygen saturation levels and tissue edema values with probing depth; however, no correlation between macrovascular hemodynamic status and microvascular hemodynamics indices was found probably given the heterogeneity of the population under consideration, the low number of data gathered, and the small sample size.
Effects of Palatal Expansion with Torque Activation using a Transpalatal Arch: A Preliminary Single-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
Purpose. The literature regarding the treatment of posterior crossbites using a transpalatal arch (TPA) is scarce. Moreover, there is only one clinical study on the correction of unilateral crossbites using torque activation. This is an important clinical issue; therefore, this study was conducted to show the effects of an active Goshgarian TPA in correcting nonfunctional single-tooth unilateral crossbite. Methods. The present single-blind, randomized clinical trial examined 60 observations on 30 individuals with nonfunctional single-tooth unilateral crossbites in the first permanent molar area. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of “symmetric expansion” [control] and “expansion + torque activation” using Goshgarian TPAs [experimental]. The palatal arch was expanded at a rate of 2 mm/month, for 2–8 months. The average treatment durations were 157.9 and 117.1 days, respectively, for the control and experimental groups. Dentoskeletal alterations were assessed on dental records, posteroanterior frontal cephalographs, and occlusal radiographs taken before and after treatment. Changes induced by treatments in each group and differences between changes in both groups were analyzed statistically (α = 0.05). Results. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in the experimental group (). The extent of dental displacement on the crossbite side was significant no matter what treatment was applied (); no between-group difference was detected (). Both treatments tilted the teeth in crossbite () without any between-group difference (). The noncrossbite molar was displaced in the control group, whereas this did not occur in the experimental group (between-group ). Conclusions. The Goshgarian TPA can be used with torque activation in order to deliver a more effective and faster correction of nonfunctional single-tooth unilateral crossbites with more favorable clinical results.
MMP Inhibitors and Dentin Bonding: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objectives. Resin-dentin bond strength decreases over time. This reduction is related to the loss of hybrid layer integrity. Collagenolytic enzymes, especially matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), are responsible for the degradation of the collagen matrix of the hybrid layer. Various MMP inhibitors with the ability to prevent enzymatic degradation have been identified. This study aimed to systematically review the literature for studies which evaluated the effect of MMP inhibitors on the immediate and aged dentin bond strengths. Study SelectionScreening and analysis were carried out by two reviewers. Two databases were searched, and from a total of 740 articles, 43 were accepted for full review. 21 articles with 0.2%–2% chlorhexidine (CHX) treatments were included for meta-analysis. A risk of bias assessment was performed on all studies chosen for meta-analysis. A variety of MMP inhibitors have been studied, CHX being the most widely used. Conclusions. A clear trend for a lower loss of dentin bond strength was observed with different MMP inhibitors. In meta-analysis, no significant difference was seen between the CHX and control in the immediate bond strengths. Bond strengths in the CHX group were significantly higher than the control group after aging (). The percentage of fractures occurring at the adhesive interface increased after aging. Five out of 21 studies included in the meta-analysis had high and the rest medium risk of bias. More long-term studies with lower risks of bias should be carried out to increase the reliability of results. Clinical RelevanceThe use of MMP inhibition with chlorhexidine can be recommended to increase the longevity of resin-dentin bond strength.