Stress Distribution in 5-Unit Fixed Partial Dentures with a Pier Abutment and Rigid and Nonrigid Connectors with Two Different Occlusal Schemes: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element AnalysisRead the full article
International Journal of Dentistry publishes original research articles and review articles in all areas of dentistry, including periodontal diseases, dental implants, oral pathology, as well as oral and maxillofacial surgery.
Chief Editor, Dr Patricia Pereira, is based at the University of Florida, USA. Her main research interests are cosmetic and esthetic dentistry, involving direct and indirect bonded restorations.
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Cone Beam CT Analysis of Haller Cells: Prevalence and Relationship with Orbital Floor Dehiscence
Background and Aim. Haller cells arise from anterior ethmoid air cells and are located in the medial orbital floor, lateral to the maxillary infundibulum. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of the Haller cells and its relationship with orbital floor dehiscence on cone beam CT images. Materials and Methods. CBCT images of 120 patients were interpreted in coronal plane for the presence of Haller cells and orbital floor dehiscence. The prevalence of Haller cell, presence of dehiscence, unilateral, or bilateral frequency were assessed. In addition, the size was categorized in three groups of small, medium, and large. Chi-square and Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel tests were used for statistical analysis of the data, and was considered to be significant. Results. A total of 51 male and 69 female with mean ± SD age of 38.84 ± 68.14 were assessed. The overall prevalence of Haller cells was 56.7%, of which 44 (64.7%) were unilateral and 24 were bilateral (35.3%). The majority of the cells (70.7%) were seen in medium (2–4 mm) sized. There was a significant association between Haller cells and orbital floor dehiscence (). Conclusion. The prevalence of Haller cells was remarkably high and the presence of Haller cells was strongly associated with ipsilateral orbital floor dehiscence. Based on the findings of this study, CBCT can be useful in delineation of the bony anatomy of sinonasal complex.
Evaluation of the Effect of Nanoparticle Graphene Oxide on Flexural Strength of Glass Ionomer Cements
Aim. Glass ionomer (GIC) is a widely used restorative material in dentistry, but it has relatively weak mechanical properties. In this research, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) on the flexural strength of GIC was investigated. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, 60 GIC samples in 6 groups of 10 were prepared, including Group 1: control conventional glass ionomer (CGIC), Group 2: CGIC + 1% wt of GO, Group 3: CGIC + 2% wt of GO, Group 4: control resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI), Group 5: RMGI + 1% wt of GO, and Group 6: RMGI + 2% wt of GO. The samples were kept for 24 hours. The flexural strength of the samples was measured by using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and posthoc Tukey test. (). Results. In the RMGI groups, the mean flexural strength value of the RMGI + 2% GO group was significantly higher than that of the RMGI control group (). In the comparison of RMGI groups with their corresponding CGIC groups, the mean flexural strength values of all RMGI groups were significantly more than CGIC groups (). RMGI + 1% GO was not significantly different from control RMGI and RMGI + 2% GO (, , respectively). There was no significant difference between CGIC groups. Conclusion. Adding 2% by weight of GO to RMGI increases the flexural strength of RMGI, which could be of great importance in clinical practice in order to reinforce the mechanical properties of this dental material. The flexural strength of RMGI is higher than that of CGIC.
Efficacy of Probiotics Compared to Chlorhexidine Mouthwash in Improving Periodontal Status: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Purpose. To critically evaluate the available literature and conduct a systematic review of recent randomized controlled trials to assess the effectiveness of probiotics compared to chlorhexidine mouthwash in enhancing periodontal health. Methods. Five databases were searched electronically, as well as the gray literature. Using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized clinical trials, the risk of bias was examined. The weighted mean difference (WMD) method was used to calculate the effect sizes. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 and τ2 statistics. The GRADE approach was adopted to assess the certainty of the evidence. To assess the robustness of the findings, sensitivity analysis and publication bias assessment were undertaken. Results. A total of 1850 studies were initially identified. Sixteen clinical trials were eligible for qualitative synthesis, and ten were included in the meta-analysis. In terms of the gingival index, in total, no statistically significant difference was observed between chlorhexidine and probiotics within 4 weeks (WMD −0.03, 95% CI: −0.09∼0.04, = 0.3885). Similar to GI, no statistically significant difference was observed between chlorhexidine and probiotics regarding the plaque index within 4 weeks (WMD 0.11, 95% CI: −0.05∼0.28, = 0.1726). No statistically significant difference was observed between chlorhexidine and probiotics in all time intervals regarding oral hygiene index-simplified (WMD −0.01, 95% CI: −0.05∼0.04, = 0.7508). The robustness of these findings was confirmed by sensitivity analysis and publication bias assessments. Conclusions. Based on the findings, probiotics were an acceptable alternative to conventional chlorhexidine in improving periodontal health. High-quality studies with rigorous methodology should be conducted to assess the optimum doses of probiotics for clinical implications.
Bonding Surface Designs in Fixed Orthodontic Attachments
Fixed orthodontic attachments/appliances work as a medium to transfer the force applied to the teeth. In bonded types, several factors affect the attachment bond strength and their clinical success. The primary approach for increasing the bond strength focused on altering the time and concentration of acid etching; however, the results showed that these changes might increase susceptibility to enamel decalcification. The bonding mechanism of orthodontic attachments may be chemical, mechanical, or a combination of both. Most attachment bonding surfaces (ABSs) have no chemical bond to resin composites. Hence, mechanical retention plays a major role. Developing more bonding surfaces by increasing the macroscopic size of the attachments has esthetic and hygienic limitations, so the ABS design plays a more important role in maintaining and improving the bond strength. In this research, different ABS designs are reviewed and categorized according to manufacturing methods and their features.
Physiological Gingival Melanin Hyperpigmentation Treatment with Injectable Vitamin C and Scalpel Technique: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial
Harmony between facial complexion and gingival health goes hand in hand. Gingival depigmentation is an aesthetic correction of hyperactive melanocytes in gingival tissues that lead to hyperpigmentation. Current study compares depigmentation, pain scores, and itching with scalpel technique and nonsurgical intramucosal Vitamin C injection. 30 individuals in the age range of 18–40 years conscious of dark gums were randomly allocated to test and control group by lottery method. Thorough Phase I therapy was performed one week before the procedure. Area and intensity of depigmentation were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively; pain score, itching, and repigmentation percentage were the postoperative parameters. After 24 hrs, test group showed significantly lesser VAS score for pain as compared to control group. There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative area of pigmentation between the test and control group (). Postoperatively also, there was no statistically significant difference in area of pigmentation between the test and control group (). For comparing area of pigmentation, an independent t-test was applied and Mann–Whitney test was used for differentiating the intensity of pigmentation, repigmentation, and VAS score between the groups. The study concluded that Vitamin C mesotherapy and scalpel technique showed comparable results in reduction of areas and intensity of gingival hyperpigmentation.
Single Cone Obturation versus Cold Lateral Compaction Techniques with Bioceramic and Resin Sealers: Quality of Obturation and Push-Out Bond Strength
Objectives. This study compared the obturation quality and push-out bond strength of single cone obturation (SCO) and cold lateral compaction (CLC) with AH-Plus and Sure Seal Root (SSR). Materials and Methods. This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 88 single-rootedsingle-canal teeth with straight roots that were randomly divided into four groups (n = 22). All teeth were decoronated and underwent cleaning and shaping. Obturation was performed with AH-Plus and SCO technique in group 1 (SAH), AH-Plus and CLC technique in group 2 (LAH), SSR and SCO technique in group 3 (SS), and SSR and CLC technique in group 4 (LS). The roots were then sectioned into 3-mm thick slices and underwent digital photography at x25 magnification to assess the quality of obturation in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds by Image J software. The PBS was measured by a universal testing machine. The mode of failure was also determined under a stereomicroscope. Results. The PBS was significantly higher in the LSS group than LAH and SAH groups, and also in the SSS group than the SAH group in all sections. The PBS in the LSS group was significantly higher than SSS in the coronal and middle thirds. Voids were significantly lower in LAH than in the SAH group in all sections. In LSS, voids in the coronal third were significantly lower than in LAH. In the middle third, voids in SSS were significantly lower than in SAH. The groups had no significant difference in the mode of failure ( > 0.05). The mean percentage of gutta-percha in the use of AH-Plus sealer was significantly higher than SSR ( < 0.05). The mean percentage of gutta-percha in the coronal third was lower than that in the middle and apical thirds ( < 0.05). Conclusion. SSR showed higher PBS and less voids than AH-Plus. High PBS of the CLC/SSR group showed that CLC should still be preferred to SCO, and in the case of using SCO, SSR should be preferred to AH-Plus.