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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 654239, 6 pages
Case Report

The Effect of Recombinant Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on Oral and Periodontal Manifestations in a Patient with Cyclic Neutropenia: A Case Report

Department of Odontostomatological and Maxillo-Facial Science, The School of Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Italy

Received 4 May 2009; Revised 28 July 2009; Accepted 30 November 2009

Academic Editor: Jasim M. Albandar

Copyright © 2009 Sergio Matarasso et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Cyclic Neutropenia (CN) is characterized by recurrent infections, fever, oral ulcerations, and severe periodontitis as result of the reduced host defences. The previous studies have established the effectiveness of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) to increase the number and the function of neutrophils in the peripheral blood in this disease. In a 20-year-old Caucasian female with a diagnosis of cyclic neutropenia, oral clinical examination revealed multiple painful ulcerations of the oral mucosa, poor oral hygiene conditions, marginal gingivitis, and moderate periodontitis. The patient received a treatment with G-CSF (Pegfilgrastim, 6 mg/month) in order to improve her immunological status. Once a month nonsurgical periodontal treatment was carefully performed when absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 500/ 𝜇 L. The treatment with G-CSF resulted in a rapid increase of circulating neutrophils that, despite its short duration, leaded to a reduction in infection related events and the resolution of the multiple oral ulcerations. The disappearance of oral pain allowed an efficacy nonsurgical treatment and a normal tooth brushing that determined a reduction of probing depth ( P D 4  mm) and an improvement of the oral hygiene conditions recorded at 6-month follow-up.