Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2011, Article ID 964278, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/964278
Research Article

Prevalence of Oral Manifestations and Their Association with CD4/CD8 Ratio and HIV Viral Load in South India

1Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sudha Rustagi Dental College, Haryana, Faridabad 121002, India
2Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal 576104, India
3Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, PDM Dental College, Haryana, Bahadurgarh 124507, India

Received 18 July 2011; Accepted 22 August 2011

Academic Editor: John D. Bartlett

Copyright © 2011 Sharma Gaurav et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. UNAIDS/WHO. Getting to Zero. 2011–2015 Strategy. Joint United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS.
  2. J. A. Levy, “HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges,” AIDS, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 147–160, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. J. C. Forbi and S. M. Agwale, “Inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio associated with AIDS event and death in HIV-1 infected individuals in Nasarawa State, Nigeria,” Tanzania journal of health research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 144–148, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. W. Mellors, C. R. Rinaldo, P. Gupta, R. M. White, J. A. Todd, and L. A. Kingsley, “Prognosis in HIV-1 infection predicted by the quantity of virus in plasma,” Science, vol. 272, no. 5265, pp. 1167–1170, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. S. Klein, C. A. Harris, C. B. Small, B. Moll, M. Lesser, and G. H. Friedland, “Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 311, no. 6, pp. 354–358, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. A. Reichart, A. Langford, H. R. Gelderblom, H. D. Pohle, J. Becker, and H. Wolf, “Oral hairy leukoplakia: observations in 95 cases and review of the literature,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 410–415, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. F. Hilton, E. Donegan, M. H. Katz et al., “Development of oral lesions in human immunodeficiency virus-infected transfusion recipients and hemophiliacs,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 164–174, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. E. Steidley, S. H. Thompson, M. J. McQuade, S. L. Strong, M. J. Scheidt, and T. E. Van Dyke, “A comparison of T4:T8 lymphocyte ratio in the periodontal lesion of healthy and HIV-positive patients,” Journal of Periodontology, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 753–756, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  9. I. M. Bravo, M. Correnti, L. Escalona et al., “Prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients related to CD4 cell count and viral load in a Venezuelan population,” Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. E33–E39, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Campo, J. Del Romero, J. Castilla, S. García, C. Rodríguez, and A. Bascones, “Oral candidiasis as a clinical marker related to viral load, CD4 lymphocyte count and CD4 lymphocyte percentage in HIV-infected patients,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Greenspan, S. J. Gange, J. A. Phelan et al., “Incidence of oral lesions in HIV-1-infected women: reduction with HAART,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Margiotta, G. Campisi, S. Mancuso, V. Accurso, V. Abbadessa, and P. Giaccone, “HIV infection: oral lesions, CD4+ cell count and viral load in an italian study population,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 173–177, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. “EEC-Clearinghouse on oral problems related to HIV infection and WHO collaborating Centre on oral manifestations of the human immunodeficiency virus. Classification and diagnostic criteria for oral lesions in HIV infection,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 22, pp. 289–291, 1993.
  14. P. C. S. Tsang and L. P. Samaranayake, “Oral manifestations of HIV infection in a group of predominantly ethnic Chinese,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 122–127, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Ranganathan, B. V. R. Reddy, N. Kumarasamy, S. Solomon, R. Viswanathan, and N. W. Johnson, “Oral lesions and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection in 300 south Indian patients,” Oral Diseases, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 152–157, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Kerdpon, S. Pongsiriwet, K. Pangsomboon et al., “Oral manifestations of HIV infection in relation to clinical and CD4 immunological status in northern and southern Thai patients,” Oral Diseases, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 138–144, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. M. A. Adedigba, E. O. Ogunbodede, S. O. Jeboda, and S. Naidoo, “Patterns of oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS among 225 Nigerian patients,” Oral Diseases, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 341–346, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  18. W. Nittayananta, N. Chanowanna, S. Sripatanakul, and T. Winn, “Risk factors associated with oral lesions in HIV-infected heterosexual people and intravenous drug users in Thailand,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 224–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. L. Dodd, D. Greenspan, M. H. Katz, J. L. Westenhouse, D. W. Feigal, and J. S. Greenspan, “Oral candidiasis in HIV infection: pseudomembranous and erythematous candidiasis show similar rates of progression to AIDS,” AIDS, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 1339–1343, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Nielsen, K. D. Bentsen, L. HØjtved et al., “Oral candidiasis and immune status of HIV-infected patients,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 140–143, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Fonseca, A. S. Cardoso, and I. Pomarico, “Frequency of oral manifestations in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus,” Quintessence International, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 419–422, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. E. Barr and J. P. Torosian, “Oral manifestations in inpatients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex,” Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8501, p. 288, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. G. M. McCarthy, I. D. Mackie, J. Koval, H. S. Sandhu, and T. D. Daley, “Factors associated with increased frequency of HIV-related oral candidiasis,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 332–336, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. G. Lourenco and L. T. Figueiredo, “Oral manifestations in HIV infected patients from Ribeirao Preto, Brazil,” Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. E281–E286, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  25. E. N. Pedreira, C. L. Cardoso, C. Barroso Edo, J. A. De Souza Santos, F. P. Fonseca, and L. A. De Assis Taveira, “Epidemiological and oral manifestations of HIV-positive patients in a specialized service in Brazil,” Journal of Applied Oral Science, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 369–375, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Romeu, M. Balagué, L. Ruiz et al., “Valve of HIV-1 viral load and CD4 lymphocyte count as determinants of progression to AIDS and survival,” Medicina Clinica, vol. 110, no. 20, pp. 761–767, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Birnbaum, T. A. Hodgson, P. A. Reichart, W. Sherson, S. W. Nittayannanta, and T. E. Axell, “Prognostic significance of HIV-associated oral lesions and their relation to therapy,” Oral Diseases, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 110–114, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Gaitan-Cepeda, M. Cashat-Cruz, J. J. Morales-Aguirre et al., “Prevalence of oral lesions in mexican children with perinatally acquired HIV: association with immunologic status, viral load, and gender (AIDS Patient Care and STDs,” AIDS Patient Care and STDs, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 151–156, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  29. M. S. Duggal, H. Abudiak, C. Dunn, H. J. Tong, and T. Munyombwe, “Effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count, viral load, and duration of taking anti-retroviral treatment on presence of oral lesions in a sample of South African children with HIV+/AIDS,” European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 242–246, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  30. L. L. Patton, R. McKaig, R. Strauss, D. Rogers, and J. J. Eron Jr., “Changing prevalence of oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus in the era of protease inhibitor therapy,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics, vol. 89, pp. 299–304, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  31. M. D. G. Moura, S. D. M. C. Grossmann, L. M. D. S. Fonseca, M. I. B. Senna, and R. A. Mesquita, “Risk factors for oral hairy leukoplakia in HIV-infected adults of Brazil,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 321–326, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. J. D. Eyeson, M. Tenant-Flowers, D. J. Cooper, N. W. Johnson, and K. A. A. S. Warnakulasuriya, “Oral manifestations of an HIV positive cohort in the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in South London,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. V. Ramírez-Amador, L. Esquivel-Pedraza, J. Sierra-Madero, G. Anaya-Saavedra, I. González-Ramírez, and S. Ponce-de-León, “The changing clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related oral lesions in 1,000 consecutive patients: a 12-year study in a referral center in Mexico,” Medicine, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. M. R. Umadevi, K. Ranganathan, S. Pavithra et al., “Oral lesions among persons with HIV disease with and without highly active anti retroviral therapy in southern India,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 36, pp. 136–141, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  35. R. M. Logan, E. A. Coates, A. M. Pierce, and D. F. Wilson, “A retrospective analysis of oral hairy leukoplakia in South Australia,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 108–113, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. W. Nittayananta, S. Talungchit, S. Jaruratanasirikul et al., “Effects of long-term use of HAART on oral health status of HIV-infected subjects,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 397–406, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. O. Nicolatou-Galitis, A. Velegraki, S. Paikos et al., “Effect of PI-HAART on the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-1 infected patients. A Greek study,” Oral Diseases, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. M. D. King, D. A. Reznik, C. M. O'Daniels, N. M. Larsen, D. Osterholt, and H. M. Blumberg, “Human papillomavirus-associated oral warts among human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: an emerging infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 641–648, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. L. L. Patton, K. Ranganathan, S. Naidoo et al., “Oral lesions, HIV phenotypes, and management of HIV-related disease: workshop 4A,” Advances in dental research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 112–116, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed