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International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2012, Article ID 234845, 7 pages
Research Article

Stress Analysis of Occlusal Forces in Canine Teeth and Their Role in the Development of Non-Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

1Department of Restorative Dentistry, King's College London Dental Institute, Denmark Hill Campus, Caldecot Road, London SE5 9RW, UK
2Department of Restorative Dentistry, Guy's Hospital, Tower Wing, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK

Received 22 April 2012; Revised 5 June 2012; Accepted 10 June 2012

Academic Editor: Francesco Carinci

Copyright © 2012 Shihab A. Romeed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Non-carious cervical tooth lesions for many decades were attributed to the effects of abrasion and erosion mainly through toothbrush trauma, abrasive toothpaste, and erosive acids. However, though the above may be involved, more recently a biomechanical theory for the formation of these lesions has arisen, and the term abfraction was coined. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of abfraction lesions in upper canine teeth under axial and lateral loading conditions using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. An extracted human upper canine tooth was scanned by μCT machine (Skyscan, Belgium). These μCT scans were segmented, reconstructed, and meshed using ScanIP (Simpleware, Exeter, UK) to create a three-dimensional finite element model. A 100 N load was applied axially at the incisal edge and laterally at 45° midpalatally to the long axis of the canine tooth. Separately, 200 N axial and non-axial loads were applied simultaneously to the tooth. It was found that stresses were concentrated at the CEJ in all scenarios. Lateral loading produced maximum stresses greater than axial loading, and pulp tissues, however, experienced minimum levels of stresses. This study has contributed towards the understanding of the aetiology of non-carious cervical lesions which is a key in their clinical management.