Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2012, Article ID 479850, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/479850
Review Article

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Tooth Erosion

School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia

Received 25 May 2011; Revised 12 September 2011; Accepted 14 September 2011

Academic Editor: Ann-Katrin Johansson

Copyright © 2012 Sarbin Ranjitkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Jaeggi and A. Lussi, “Prevalence, incidence and distribution of erosion,” Monographs in Oral Science, vol. 20, pp. 44–65, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. G. A. Prasad, A. Bansal, P. Sharma, and K. K. Wang, “Predictors of progression in barrett's esophagus: current knowledge and future directions,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 7, pp. 1490–1502, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. H. Rubenstein and J. B. Taylor, “Meta-analysis: the association of oesophageal adenocarcinoma with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 1222–1227, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. Bartlett, “Intrinsic causes of erosion,” Monographs in Oral Science, vol. 20, pp. 119–139, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. V. Tolia and Y. Vandenplas, “Systematic review: the extra-oesophageal symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in children,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 258–272, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Fass, S. R. Achem, S. Harding, R. K. Mittal, and E. Quigley, “Review article: supra-oesophageal manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and the role of night-time gastro-oesophageal reflux,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 26–38, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. Pace, S. Pallotta, M. Tonini, N. Vakil, and G. Bianchi Porro, “Systematic review: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and dental lesions,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1179–1186, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. B. C.-Y. Wong, W. M. Wong, and R. Smales, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease and tooth erosion,” in Tooth Erosion: Prevention and Treatment, K. H. K. Yip, R. J. Smales, and J. A. Kaidonis, Eds., pp. 47–53, Jaypee Brothers Medical, New Delhi, India, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Pisegna, G. Holtmann, C. W. Howden et al., “Review article: oesophageal complications and consequences of persistent gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, supplement 9, pp. 47–56, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. M. Fenoglio-Preiser, A. E. Noffsinger, G. N. Stemmermann, P. E. Lantz, and M. B. Listrom, “The nonneoplastic esophagus,” in Gastrointestinal Pathology: An Atlas and Text, pp. 31–91, Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  11. W. C. Orr, “Therapeutic options in the treatment of nighttime gastroesophageal reflux,” Digestion, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 229–238, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. W. C. Orr, “Sleep issues in gastroesophageal reflux disease: beyond simple heartburn control,” Reviews in Gastroenterological Disorders, vol. 3, supplement 4, pp. S22–S29, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. M. Pedersen, A. Bardow, S. B. Jensen, and B. Nauntofte, “Saliva and gastrointestinal functions of taste, mastication, swallowing and digestion,” Oral Diseases, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 117–129, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Fox and M. Lombard, “Oesophagus,” in Gastroenterology, pp. 61–71, Mosby, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  15. F. A. Herbella and M. G. Patti, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease: from pathophysiology to treatment,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 30, pp. 3745–3749, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. C. Orlando, “Reflux esophagitis,” in Textbook of Gastroenterology, T. Yamada, D. H. Alpers, L. Laine, C. Owyang, and D. W. Powell, Eds., pp. 1235–1263, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  17. N. Vakil, S. V. van Zanten, P. Kahrilas et al., “The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 1900–1943, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. M. Sherman, E. Hassall, U. Fagundes-Neto et al., “A Global, evidence-based consensus on the definition of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the pediatric population,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 5, pp. 1278–1295, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. C. Farup, L. Kleinman, S. Sloan et al., “The impact of nocturnal symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease on health-related quality of life,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Shaker, D. O. Castell, P. S. Schoenfeld, and S. J. Spechler, “Nighttime heartburn is an under-appreciated clinical problem that impacts sleep and daytime function: the results of a Gallup survey conducted on behalf of the American Gastroenterological Association,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 7, pp. 1487–1493, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Reimer and P. Bytzer, “A population-based survey to assess troublesome symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 394–400, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. A. Eloubeidi and D. Provenzale, “Health-related quality of life and severity of symptoms in patients with Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease patients without Barrett's esophagus,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 1881–1887, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. C. Orr, “Review article: sleep-related gastro-oesophageal reflux as a distinct clinical entity,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Dickman, S. Parthasarathy, I. B. Malagon et al., “Comparisons of the distribution of oesophageal acid exposure throughout the sleep period among the different gastro-oesophageal reflux disease groups,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Brunton and J. McGuigan, “Diagnostic challenges: differentiating nighttime GERD,” The Journal of Family Practice, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1073–1078, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. C. Orr, “Sleep and gastroesophageal reflux: what are the risks?” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 115, supplement 3, pp. 109S–113S, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. K. Dutta, K. Agrawal, and M. A. Mahmoud, “Modulation of salivation and heartburn in response to the site of acid infusion in the human oesophagus,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 795–800, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. M. Thie, T. Kato, G. Bader, J. Y. Montplaisir, and G. J. Lavigne, “The significance of saliva during sleep and the relevance of oromotor movements,” Sleep Medicine Reviews, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 213–227, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. C. Orr and M. J. Harnish, “Sleep-related gastro esophageal reflux: provocation with a late evening meal and treatment with acid suppression,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 1033–1038, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. Fass, “The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease and sleep,” Current Gastroenterology Reports, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 202–208, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. O. Castell, J. A. Murray, R. Tutuian, R. C. Orlando, and R. Arnold, “Review article: the pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease—oesophageal manifestations,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, supplement 9, pp. 14–25, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Schey, R. Dickman, S. Parthasarathy et al., “Sleep deprivation is hyperalgesic in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 1787–1795, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. Dickman, C. Green, S. S. Fass et al., “Relationships between sleep quality and pH monitoring findings in persons with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 505–513, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. W. J. Dodds, J. Dent, and W. J. Hogan, “Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 307, no. 25, pp. 1547–1552, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. C. Fox and M. Lombard, “Indigestion,” in Gastroenterology, pp. 3–8, Mosby, Edinburgh, UK, 2nd edition, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  36. A. J. Ing, M. C. Ngu, and A. B. X. Breslin, “Obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal reflux,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 108, supplement 4, pp. 120S–125S, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. W. C. Orr, R. Heading, L. F. Johnson, and M. Kryger, “Review article: sleep and its relationship to gastro-oesophageal reflux,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Supplement, vol. 20, supplement 9, pp. 39–46, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. Hirano, “Review article: modern technology in the diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease—bilitec, intraluminal impedance and Bravo capsule pH monitoring,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 23, supplement 1, pp. 12–24, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. G. H. Koek, J. Tack, D. Sifrim, T. Lerut, and J. Janssens, “The role of acid and duodenal gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic GERD,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 96, no. 7, pp. 2033–2040, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. F. Vaezi and J. E. Richter, “Duodenogastroesophageal reflux and methods to monitor nonacidic reflux,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 111, supplement 8, pp. 160S–168S, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. C. Rabine and T. T. Nostrant, “Oral manifestations of gastrointestinal diseases,” in Atlas of Gastroenterology, T. Yamada, D. H. Alpers, A. N. Kalloo et al., Eds., pp. 839–845, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 4th edition, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  42. R. Fass, J. J. Ofman, I. M. Gralnek et al., “Clinical and economic assessment of the omeprazole test in patients with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 18, pp. 2161–2168, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Sweis, M. Fox, A. Anggiansah, and T. Wong, “Prolonged, wireless pH-studies have a high diagnostic yield in patients with reflux symptoms and negative 24 h catheter-based pH-studies,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 419–426, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. A. Chandra, R. Moazzez, D. Bartlett, A. Anggiansah, and W. J. Owen, “A review of the atypical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. Lee, A. Anggiansah, R. Anggiansah, A. Young, T. Wong, and M. Fox, “Effects of age on the gastroesophageal junction, esophageal motility, and reflux disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1392–1398, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. Wenner, F. Johnsson, J. Johansson, and S. Öberg, “Wireless esophageal pH monitoring is better tolerated than the catheter-based technique: results from a randomized cross-over trial,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 239–245, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Fujiwara and T. Arakawa, “Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of GERD in the Japanese population,” Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 518–534, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. W. P. Holbrook, J. Furuholm, K. Gudmundsson, A. Theodórs, and J. H. Meurman, “Gastric reflux is a significant causative factor of tooth erosion,” Journal of Dental Research, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 422–426, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. K. Rustgi and W. Sun, “Esophageal neoplasms,” in Atlas of Gastroenterology, T. Yamada, D. H. Alpers, A. N. Kalloo et al., Eds., pp. 196–204, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  50. K. Y. Hu, “From GERD to Barrett's esophagus: is the pattern in Asia mirroring that in the West?” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 816–824, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. J. Stoltey, H. Reeba, N. Ullah, P. Sabhaie, and L. Gerson, “Does Barrett's oesophagus develop over time in patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease?” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 83–91, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Rodriguez, N. Mattek, D. Lieberman, B. Fennerty, and G. Eisen, “Barrett's esophagus on repeat endoscopy: should we look more than once?” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 8, pp. 1892–1897, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. H. Rubenstein, J. M. Scheiman, S. Sadeghi, D. Whiteman, and J. M. Inadomi, “Esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence in individuals with gastroesophageal reflux: synthesis and estimates from population studies,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 254–260, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. N. J. Shaheen, “Editorial: should women with heartburn undergo screening upper endoscopy for prevention of cancer,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 261–263, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. D. C. Whiteman, S. Sadeghi, N. Pandeya et al., “Combined effects of obesity, acid reflux and smoking on the risk of adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. B. Cook, F. Kamangar, D. C. Whiteman et al., “Cigarette smoking and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction: a pooled analysis from the International BEACON Consortium,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 102, no. 17, pp. 1344–1353, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. De Ceglie, D. A. Fisher, R. Filiberti, S. Blanchi, and M. Conio, “Barrett's esophagus, esophageal and esophagogastric junction adenocarcinomas: the role of diet,” Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. J. J. Heidelbaugh, A. S. Gill, R. Van Harrison, and T. T. Nostrant, “Atypical presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” American Family Physician, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 483–488, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. B. Dean, D. Aguilar, L. F. Johnson et al., “Night-time and daytime atypical manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: frequency, severity and impact on health-related quality of life,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 327–337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. O. Di Fede, C. Di Liberto, G. Occhipinti et al., “Oral manifestations in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a single-center case-control study,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 336–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. A. Silva, J. H. Damante, A. C. Stipp, M. M. Tolentino, P. R. Carlotto, and R. N. Fleury, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease: new oral findings,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontics, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 301–310, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. M. Edgar, C. Dawes, and D. O'Mullane, Saliva and Oral Health, British Dental Association, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2004.
  63. B. T. Amaechi and S. M. Higham, “In vitro remineralisation of eroded enamel lesions by saliva,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 371–376, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. Ericsson, “Enamel-apatite solubility. Investigations into the calcium phosphate equilibrium between enamel and saliva and its relation to dental caries,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavia, vol. 8, supplement 3, pp. 1–139, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  65. J. D. Featherstone and A. Lussi, “Understanding the chemistry of dental erosion,” Monographs in Oral Science, vol. 20, pp. 66–76, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Smales, J. Kaidonis, and C. Dawes, “Tooth structure, saliva and critical pH,” in Tooth Erosion: Prevention and Treatment, K. H. K. Yip, R. J. Smales, and J. A. Kaidonis, Eds., pp. 11–24, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  67. H. J. Busscher, W. Goedhart, J. Ruben, R. Bos, and C. H. Van der Mei, “Wettability of dental enamel by soft drinks as compared to saliva and enamel demineralization,” in Tooth Wear and Sensitivity, M. Addy, G. Embery, W. M. Edgar, and R. Orchardson, Eds., pp. 197–200, Martin Dunitz, London, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  68. T. Imfeld, “Prevention of progression of dental erosion by professional and individual prophylactic measures,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 104, no. 2, part 2, pp. 215–220, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. L. Jones, D. Lekkas, D. Hunt, J. McIntyre, and W. Rafir, “Studies on dental erosion: an in vivo-in vitro model of endogenous dental erosion—its application to testing protection by fluoride gel application,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 304–308, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. J. Rees, T. Loyn, and B. Chadwick, “Pronamel and tooth mousse: an initial assessment of erosion prevention in vitro,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 355–357, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Ranjitkar, T. Narayana, J. A. Kaidonis, T. E. Hughes, L. C. Richards, and G. C. Townsend, “The effect of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on erosive dentine wear,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 101–107, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Ramalingam, L. B. Messer, and E. C. Reynolds, “Adding casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to sports drinks to eliminate in vitro erosion,” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. Ganss, J. Klimek, V. Brune, and A. Schürmann, “Effects of two fluoridation measures on erosion progression in human enamel and dentine in situ,” Caries Research, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 561–566, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. Willumsen, B. Øgaard, B. F. Hansen, and G. Rølla, “Effects from pretreatment of stannous fluoride versus sodium fluoride on enamel exposed to 0.1 M or 0.01 M hydrochloric acid,” Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 278–281, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. S. Ranjitkar, Biology of tooth wear: preventive strategies, Ph.D. thesis, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 2009.
  76. T. Büyükyilmaz, B. Øgaard, and G. Rølla, “The resistance of titanium tetrafluoride-treated human enamel to strong hydrochloric acid,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 105, no. 5, part 2, pp. 473–477, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  77. B. T. Amaechi and S. M. Higham, “Dental erosion: possible approaches to prevention and control,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 243–252, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. Smales and K. Yip, “Prevention and control of tooth erosion,” in Tooth Erosion: Prevention and Treatment, K. H. K. Yip, R. J. Smales, and J. A. Kaidonis, Eds., pp. 33–46, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  79. E. C. Reynolds, “Anticariogenic complexes of amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptides: a review,” Special Care in Dentistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 8–16, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. T. Imfeld, “Dental erosion. Definition, classification and links,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 104, no. 2, part 2, pp. 151–155, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. P. L. Schroeder, S. J. Filler, B. Ramirez, D. A. Lazarchik, M. F. Vaezi, and J. E. Richter, “Dental erosion and acid reflux disease,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 122, no. 11, pp. 809–815, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. C. J. Böhmer, E. C. Klinkenberg-Knol, M. C. Niezen-De Boer, P. R. M. Meuwissen, and S. G. Meuwissen, “Dental erosions and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in institutionalized intellectually disabled individuals,” Oral Diseases, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 272–275, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. V. Muñoz, B. Herreros, V. Sanchiz et al., “Dental and periodontal lesions in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 461–467, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Dahshan, H. Patel, J. Delaney, A. Wuerth, R. Thomas, and V. Tolia, “Gastroesophageal reflux disease and dental erosion in children,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 474–478, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. V. Linnett, W. K. Seow, F. Connor, and R. Shepherd, “Oral health of children with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a controlled study,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 156–162, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. T. Jensdottir, I. B. Arnadottir, I. Thorsdottir et al., “Relationship between dental erosion, soft drink consumption, and gastroesophageal reflux among Icelanders,” Clinical Oral Investigations, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. N. K. Ersin, Ö. Önçaǧ, G. Tümgör, S. Aydoǧdu, and S. Hilmioǧlu, “Oral and dental manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children: a preliminary study,” Pediatric Dentistry, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 279–284, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  88. C. F. Bodecker, “Dental erosion: its possible causes and treatment,” Dental Cosmos, vol. 75, pp. 1056–1062, 1933. View at Google Scholar
  89. A. Lussi, “Dental erosion clinical diagnosis and case history taking,” European Journal of Oral Sciences, vol. 104, no. 2, part 2, pp. 191–198, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. B. G. Smith and J. K. Knight, “An index for measuring the wear of teeth,” British Dental Journal, vol. 156, no. 12, pp. 435–438, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. C. H. Wilder-Smith, P. Wilder-Smith, H. Kawakami-Wong, J. Voronets, K. Osann, and A. Lussi, “Quantification of dental erosions in patients with GERD using optical coherence tomography before and after double-blind, randomized treatment with esomeprazole or placebo,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 11, pp. 2788–2795, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. Moazzez, A. Anggiansah, and D. W. Bartlett, “The association of acidic reflux above the upper oesophageal sphincter with palatal tooth wear,” Caries Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 475–478, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. T. Higo, K. Mukaisho, Z. Q. Ling et al., “An animal model of intrinsic dental erosion caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,” Oral Diseases, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 360–365, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. R. Tutuian, M. F. Vela, E. G. Hill, I. Mainie, A. Agrawal, and D. O. Castell, “Characteristics of symptomatic reflux episodes on acid suppressive therapy,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 5, pp. 1090–1096, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. R. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. G. Wang, G. S. Jiang, and C. H. Guo, “Relationship between dental erosion and respiratory symptoms in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,” Journal of Dentistry, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 892–898, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. S. Thomas, A. Parolia, M. Kundabala, and M. Vikram, “Asthma and oral health: a review,” Australian Dental Journal, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 128–133, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus