Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
International Journal of Dentistry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 480659, 10 pages
Review Article

The Principal of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI, the Method of Pharmacokinetic Analysis, and Its Application in the Head and Neck Region

1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd. 2-13-37 Konan, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-85 07, Japan
3Imaging Systems, Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands
4Radiology Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-85 82, Japan
5Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
6Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
7Section of Image Diagnosis, Department of Diagnostics and General Care, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan

Received 18 July 2012; Accepted 18 September 2012

Academic Editor: Daisuke Ito

Copyright © 2012 Toru Chikui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Many researchers have established the utility of the dynamic contrast enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in the differential diagnosis in the head and neck region, especially in the salivary gland tumors. The subjective assessment of the pattern of the time-intensity curve (TIC) or the simple quantification of the TIC, such as the time to peak enhancement ( ) and the wash-out ratio (WR), is commonly used. Although the semiquantitative evaluations described above have been widely applied, they do not provide information on the underlying pharmacokinetic analysis in tissue. The quantification of DCE-MRI is preferable; therefore, many compartment model analyses have been proposed. The Toft and Kermode (TK) model is one of the most popular compartment models, which provide information about the influx forward volume transfer constant from plasma into the extravascular-extracellular space (EES) and the fractional volume of EES per unit volume of tissue is used in many clinical studies. This paper will introduce the method of pharmacokinetic analysis and also describe the clinical application of this technique in the head and neck region.